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Date: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 14:54:58 +0000
From: 'James, David G' <david_james...> [western_monarchs] <western_monarchs...>
Subject: [western_monarchs] Oregon Monarch migrates to Santa Barbara for breeding

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In the world of Monarchs the accepted dogma is that fall migrants from the =
Pacific Northwest fly to coastal California for overwintering as non-reprod=
uctive individuals. Our research over the past five years has largely conf=
irmed this idea with 50 recoveries of Oregon and Washington-tagged Monarchs=
in non-breeding overwintering colonies (data in forthcoming paper "Citizen=
scientist tagging reveals destinations of migrating Monarch butterflies fr=
om the Pacific Northwest", Journal of the Lepidopterists Society).

However a recent recovery of a Klamath Falls, Oregon-tagged Monarch in a Sa=
nta Barbara backyard challenges this strict reproductive diapause/overwinte=
ring strategy. This Klamath Falls female Monarch released on September 3 mi=
grated 545 miles in less than 19 days, clearly a non-reproductive migrant. =
But on reaching Santa Barbara on September 22 this female had matured her =
ovaries, become reproductive and was observed ovipositing on milkweed, only=
5 miles from the celebrated Ellwood overwintering site.

This tag recovery tells us that not all migrant Monarchs from the PNW are d=
estined to overwinter as non-breeding populations. Some may actually join t=
he southern California year-round breeding population. For a PNW Monarch re=
aching Santa Barbara and locations further south, either reproductive strat=
egy, breeding or non-breeding will work and it makes good ecological sense =
for individuals to vary in their response to the S CA sunshine and warmth.

David G James
Washington State University
Prosser WA



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<p class="MsoNormal">In the world of Monarchs the accepted dogma is that fall migrants from the Pacific Northwest fly to coastal California for overwintering as non-reproductive individuals.&nbsp; Our research over the past five years has largely confirmed this
idea with 50 recoveries of Oregon and Washington-tagged Monarchs in non-breeding overwintering colonies (data in forthcoming paper &#8220;Citizen scientist tagging reveals destinations of migrating Monarch butterflies from the Pacific Northwest&#8221;, Journal of the
Lepidopterists Society).<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">However a recent recovery of a Klamath Falls, Oregon-tagged Monarch in a Santa Barbara backyard challenges this strict reproductive diapause/overwintering strategy. This Klamath Falls female Monarch released on September 3 migrated 545
miles in less than 19 days, clearly a non-reproductive migrant.&nbsp; But on reaching Santa Barbara on September 22 this female had matured her ovaries, become reproductive and was observed ovipositing on milkweed, only 5 miles from the celebrated Ellwood overwintering
site.&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">This tag recovery tells us that not all migrant Monarchs from the PNW are destined to overwinter as non-breeding populations. Some may actually join the southern California year-round breeding population. For a PNW Monarch reaching Santa
Barbara and locations further south, either reproductive strategy, breeding or non-breeding will work and it makes good ecological sense for individuals to vary in their response to the S CA sunshine and warmth.<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">David G James<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">Washington State University<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal">Prosser WA<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
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