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List: SoWestLep
Date: Wed, 13 Mar 2019 09:03:15 -0700
From: Paul Cherubini <monarch...> [SoWestLep] <SoWestLep-noreply...>
Subject: Re: [SoWestLep] Painted Lady Migration
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> Jim Brock wrote:
>=20
> does anybody know if anybody is looking at the reverse migration of cardu=
i in
> the fall in North America? I suspect there could be a less massive return=
of cardui
> to some points south (Mexico?) like they do in Europe where they head sou=
th
> from Scandinavia to northern Africa.

This is what Art Shapiro told a Los Angeles Times reporter recently:

https://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-butterflies-desert-exp=
losion-20190312-story.html?outputType=3Damp


After the butterflies reach adulthood in the California deserts, in
late winter or early spring, they disperse to the northwest, flying
without stopping at speeds of up to 25 mph. The insects can travel 350
miles from Lone Pine in the Eastern Sierra to Davis in only three
days.

=E2=80=9CThey fly like a bat out of hell,=E2=80=9D Shapiro said.

The insects are fueled by a packet of yellow abdominal fat, stored
from their caterpillar days, that enables them to fly hundreds of
miles without stopping. (That fat is responsible for the yellow
streaks on your car windshield if you happen to run into one). When
the fat reserve runs out, they will stop and breed. The next
generation will continue the trek north.

In the fall, the migration pattern reverses. But the southern journey
is more leisurely. Without stored fat, the butterflies make more stops
to drink nectar, and breed, along the way. They arrive in the desert
in late fall and the cycle begins again.
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<br class=3D""><div><span style=3D"font-size: 14px;" class=3D""><br class=
=3D""></span><blockquote type=3D"cite" class=3D""><div class=3D""><span sty=
le=3D"font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">Jim Brock wrote:</span></div><span style=
=3D"font-size: 14px;" class=3D""><br class=3D"Apple-interchange-newline"></=
span><div class=3D""><span style=3D"font-family: arial; font-size: 14px;" c=
lass=3D"">does anybody know if anybody is looking at the reverse migration =
of cardui in</span></div></blockquote><blockquote type=3D"cite" class=3D"">=
<div class=3D""><span style=3D"font-family: arial; font-size: 14px;" class=
=3D""> the fall in North America? I suspect there could be a less massive r=
eturn of cardui</span></div></blockquote><blockquote type=3D"cite" class=3D=
""><div class=3D""><span style=3D"font-family: arial; font-size: 14px;" cla=
ss=3D"">to some points south (Mexico?) like they do in Europe where they he=
ad south</span></div></blockquote><blockquote type=3D"cite" class=3D""><div=
class=3D""><span style=3D"font-family: arial; font-size: 14px;" class=3D""=
> from Scandinavia to northern Africa.</span></div></blockquote><span style=
=3D"font-size: 14px;" class=3D""><br class=3D""></span></div><div><span sty=
le=3D"font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">This is what Art Shapiro told a Los Ange=
les Times reporter recently:</span></div><div><span style=3D"font-size: 14p=
x;" class=3D""><br class=3D""></span></div><div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; =
font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"font-=
size: 14px;" class=3D""><a href=3D"https://www.latimes.com/science/sciencen=
ow/la-sci-sn-butterflies-desert-explosion-20190312-story.html?outputType=3D=
amp" class=3D"">https://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-butter=
flies-desert-explosion-20190312-story.html?outputType=3Damp</a></span></div=
><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; min-=
height: 14px;" class=3D""><span style=3D"font-size: 14px;" class=3D""><br c=
lass=3D""></span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; lin=
e-height: normal; min-height: 14px;" class=3D""><span style=3D"font-size: 1=
4px;" class=3D""><br class=3D""></span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; fon=
t-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; min-height: 18px;" class=3D""><span=
style=3D"font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">After the butterflies reach adulthoo=
d in the California deserts, in<span style=3D"font-kerning: none" class=3D"=
"></span></span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line=
-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none; fon=
t-size: 14px;" class=3D"">late winter or early spring, they disperse to the=
northwest, flying</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: nor=
mal; line-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: =
none; font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">without stopping at speeds of up to 25 m=
ph. The insects can travel 350</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-=
stretch: normal; line-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-fo=
nt-kerning: none; font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">miles from Lone Pine in the =
Eastern Sierra to Davis in only three</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px=
; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-we=
bkit-font-kerning: none; font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">days.</span></div><di=
v style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; min-heig=
ht: 18px;" class=3D""><span style=3D"font-size: 14px;" class=3D""><span sty=
le=3D"font-kerning: none" class=3D""></span><br class=3D""></span></div><di=
v style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal;" class=
=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none; font-size: 14px;" class=3D=
"">=E2=80=9CThey fly like a bat out of hell,=E2=80=9D Shapiro said.</span><=
/div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; =
min-height: 18px;" class=3D""><span style=3D"font-size: 14px;" class=3D""><=
span style=3D"font-kerning: none" class=3D""></span><br class=3D""></span><=
/div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal;"=
class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none; font-size: 14px;" cl=
ass=3D"">The insects are fueled by a packet of yellow abdominal fat, stored=
</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: =
normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none; font-size: 1=
4px;" class=3D"">from their caterpillar days, that enables them to fly hund=
reds of</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-h=
eight: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none; font-=
size: 14px;" class=3D"">miles without stopping. (That fat is responsible fo=
r the yellow</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; l=
ine-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none; =
font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">streaks on your car windshield if you happen t=
o run into one). When</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: =
normal; line-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kernin=
g: none; font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">the fat reserve runs out, they will s=
top and breed. The next</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch=
: normal; line-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kern=
ing: none; font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">generation will continue the trek n=
orth.</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-hei=
ght: normal; min-height: 18px;" class=3D""><span style=3D"font-size: 14px;"=
class=3D""><span style=3D"font-kerning: none" class=3D""></span><br class=
=3D""></span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-he=
ight: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none; font-s=
ize: 14px;" class=3D"">In the fall, the migration pattern reverses. But the=
southern journey</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: norm=
al; line-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: n=
one; font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">is more leisurely. Without stored fat, th=
e butterflies make more stops</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-s=
tretch: normal; line-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-fon=
t-kerning: none; font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">to drink nectar, and breed, a=
long the way. They arrive in the desert</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0=
px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-=
webkit-font-kerning: none; font-size: 14px;" class=3D"">in late fall and th=
e cycle begins again.</span></div></div>



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