Jump to :     |    View All Lists    |    FAQ
List: western_monarchs
Date: Sun, 22 Mar 2020 14:46:46 -0700
From: Paul Cherubini <monarch...> [western_monarchs] <western_monarchs...>
Subject: =?utf-8?Q?Re=3A_=5Bwestern=5Fmonarchs=5D_What=E2=80=99s_Happening?= =?utf-8?Q?_to_the_=28Western=29_Monarch_Butterfly_Population=3F_=28New_Yo?= =?utf-8?Q?rk_Times=2C_March_20/20=29?=
---- ---------------------- -------------------------------------------------- 0.00 HTML_MESSAGE BODY: HTML included in message 0.00 MIME_QP_LONG_LINE RAW: Quoted-printable line longer than 76 chars 0.82 MIME_QP_LONG_LINE_2 RAW: Quoted-printable line longer than 76 chars 1.00 BSF_SC0_SA828 Custom Outbreak Rule BSF_SC0_SA828X-Originating-IP: 10.221.10.59X-Original-From: Paul Cherubini <monarch...>From: "Paul Cherubini <monarch...> [western_monarchs]" <western_monarchs...>X-Yahoo-Profile: stelliomatsonSender: <western_monarchs...>: 1.0Mailing-List: list <western_monarchs...>; contact <western_monarchs-owner...>: mailing list <western_monarchs...>: <western_monarchs.yahoogroups.com>Precedence: bulkList-Unsubscribe: <mailto:<western_monarchs-unsubscribe...>Date: Sun, 22 Mar 2020 14:46:46 -0700Subject: =?utf-8?Q?Re=3A_=5Bwestern=5Fmonarchs=5D_What=E2=80=99s_Happening?= =?utf-8?Q?_to_the_=28Western=29_Monarch_Butterfly_Population=3F_=28New_Yo?= =?utf-8?Q?rk_Times=2C_March_20/20=29?=Reply-To: <western_monarchs...>: groups-email-tradh-m
Content-Type: multipart/alternative;
boundary="Apple-Mail=_4E379BBF-2D59-4BBB-BEF4-3F94159FABBF"

--Apple-Mail=_4E379BBF-2D59-4BBB-BEF4-3F94159FABBF
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset=utf-8


> 'Dave Wikle=E2=80=99: wrote: Hey=E2=80=A6 for those of us that don=E2=80=
=99t want to
> create an account with the NY Times
> how about summarizing the article for us?

By Karen Weintraub March 20, 2020

Western monarch butterflies spend their winters in Pismo Beach=20
and other sites on the central California coast. A few months later,=20
they breed in the Central Valley and as far north and east as Idaho.=20
But where they go in between remains an open question.
Now, a group of researchers wants the public=E2=80=99s help to solve that=20
mystery. They would like anyone who spots a monarch north of=20
Santa Barbara this spring to snap a quick picture. The=20
researchers =E2=80=94 from Washington State University, Tufts University,
the nonprofit Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, and=20
the University of California, Santa Cruz =E2=80=94 need photographic=20
evidence, a date and a location to confirm where the monarchs=20
might be living. (Photos and information can be emailed to
<monarchmystery...> <mailto:<monarchmystery...> or uploaded on the=
iNaturalist app.)

=E2=80=9CSomething=E2=80=99s going on in early spring,=E2=80=9D said Cheryl=
Schultz, a=20
professor at Washington State University in Vancouver.=20=20
Researchers know that winter survival isn=E2=80=99t the issue in the=20
short-term, she said. But they don=E2=80=99t know whether the monarchs
are not making it to breeding sites, not finding plants to nourish=20
them along the way, or not able to find mates.

The Western monarch population, which lives west of the Rocky=20
Mountains, stood in the millions in the 1980s. In 2017, an annual=20
count found 200,000 butterflies. In 2018, the tally fell to about=20
30,000 =E2=80=94 a figure that held steady last year, said Elizabeth Crone,=
=20
a biology professor at Tufts University in Medford, Mass.

The monarch=E2=80=99s decline is part of a larger trend among dozens of=20
butterfly species in the West, including creatures with names like=20
field crescents, large marbles and Nevada skippers, said Matt=20
Forister, an insect ecologist at the University of Nevada, Reno,=20
whose conclusions are based on a nearly 50-year set of data=20
compiled by Art Shapiro, a researcher at the University of=20
California, Davis. =E2=80=9CThe monarch is very clearly part of a larger=20
decline of butterflies in the West.=E2=80=9D

Research pins the loss of Western butterflies on a variety of=20
factors, including development, climate change, farming practices
and the widespread use of pesticides by farmers, and on home=20
and business lawns, Dr. Forister said.

For example, Dr. Schultz said that farms used to have rough,=20
weedy borders that were great breeding grounds for the types
of plants that monarchs love. Newer farming practices have=20
pushed crops to the very edge of the fields, leaving no room=20
for these weedy margins, she said.

Another factor, she said: Some homeowners, eager to attract=20
monarchs, have planted tropical milkweed. Although the butterflies=20
will feed on them, these plants tend to spread disease, because=20
they don=E2=80=99t drop their leaves, Dr. Schultz said, which may be=20
contributing to the declining monarch population. Native milkweed=20
supports the population without this risk, she said.

Another factor, she said: Some homeowners, eager to attract=20
monarchs, have planted tropical milkweed. Although the butterflies=20
will feed on them, these plants tend to spread disease, because=20
they don=E2=80=99t drop their leaves, Dr. Schultz said, which may be=20
contributing to the declining monarch population. Native milkweed
supports the population without this risk, she said.

Climate change also plays a role in the challenges facing monarchs=20
and other butterflies, said Chip Taylor, a professor emeritus at the=20
University of Kansas, who also directs Monarch Watch, a network=20
of students, teachers, volunteers and researchers. Temperatures=20
in the Western monarch=E2=80=99s overwintering sites along the coast now=20
average 2 degrees higher in January and February than they did=20
just two decades ago =E2=80=94 the highest rate of increase outside=20
Alaska, he said.

Western monarchs are quite similar to their Eastern cousins, just=20
a bit smaller and darker, Dr. Crone said. But they have a distinct=20
migratory pattern. While the Eastern monarchs migrate from Mexico=20
to as far away as New England and Southern Canada, the Western=20
ones mostly remain in Southern California or migrate from the=20
mid-coast up as far as British Columbia and as far east as the=20
Rockies, Dr. Schultz said.

In the last couple of years, she said, the range of their breeding=20
grounds has been contracting. The butterflies are going inland=20
as far as Nevada, but they=E2=80=99re not making it as far as Washington=20
State anymore.

Like other insects, butterflies often have good years and bad.
=E2=80=9CButterfly populations are bouncy,=E2=80=9D Dr. Schultz said. =E2=
=80=9CWhile we=20
think the situation right now is very concerning, we do think there=E2=80=
=99s=20
a lot of potential to turn it around.=E2=80=9D

Dr. Schultz said she saw two reasons for hope. First, the population=20
decline seen in 2017-18 wasn=E2=80=99t repeated last year. And second,=20
she=E2=80=99s seen butterfly populations rebound before.
When she started working to help preserve the Fender=E2=80=99s blue butterf=
ly=20
in the early 1990s, there were only about 1,500 of the insects left in=20
the Willamette Valley in Oregon. This year, thanks to collaborative=20
efforts by citizens, farmers, private landowners and government,=20
there were almost 25,000.

=E2=80=9CThat=E2=80=99s the kind of commitment that gives me both optimism=
=20
and the sense that we can do this,=E2=80=9D Dr. Schultz said. =E2=80=9CMy h=
ope=20
with Western monarchs is we can bring the population back up.=E2=80=9D


--Apple-Mail=_4E379BBF-2D59-4BBB-BEF4-3F94159FABBF
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable





<head>

<style type=3D"text/css">
<!--

/* start of attachment style */
.ygrp-photo-title{
clear: both;
font-size: smaller;
height: 15px;
overflow: hidden;
text-align: center;
width: 75px;
}
div.ygrp-photo{
background-position: center;
background-repeat: no-repeat;
background-color: white;
border: 1px solid black;
height: 62px;
width: 62px;
}

div.photo-title=20
a,
div.photo-title a:active,
div.photo-title a:hover,
div.photo-title a:visited {
text-decoration: none;=20
}

div.attach-table div.attach-row {
clear: both;
}

div.attach-table div.attach-row div {
float: left;
/* margin: 2px;*/
}

p {
clear: both;
padding: 15px 0 3px 0;
overflow: hidden;
}

div.ygrp-file {
width: 30px;
valign: middle;
}
div.attach-table div.attach-row div div a {
text-decoration: none;
}

div.attach-table div.attach-row div div span {
font-weight: normal;
}

div.ygrp-file-title {
font-weight: bold;
}
/* end of attachment style */
-->
</style>
</head>
<html><head><meta http-equiv=3D"Content-Type" content=3D"text/html; charset=
=3Dutf-8"></head><body style=3D"word-wrap: break-word; -webkit-nbsp-mode: s=
pace; line-break: after-white-space;" class=3D"">


<!-- |**|begin egp html banner|**| -->

<br><br>

<!-- |**|end egp html banner|**| -->


<div class=3D""><br class=3D""></div><div><blockquote type=3D"cite" class=
=3D"">'Dave Wikle=E2=80=99: wrote:&nbsp;<span style=3D"color: rgb(31, 73, 1=
25); background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);" class=3D"">Hey=E2=80=A6 for tho=
se of us that don=E2=80=99t want to</span></blockquote><blockquote type=3D"=
cite" class=3D""><span style=3D"color: rgb(31, 73, 125); background-color: =
rgb(255, 255, 255);" class=3D"">create an account with the NY Times</span><=
/blockquote><blockquote type=3D"cite" class=3D""><span style=3D"color: rgb(=
31, 73, 125); background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);" class=3D"">how about s=
ummarizing the article for us?</span></blockquote><br class=3D""></div><div=
><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; colo=
r: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;"=
class=3D""><b class=3D"">By Karen Weintraub&nbsp;</b></span>March 20, 2020=
</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal;=
color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><br class=3D""></div><div style=3D"mar=
gin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51)=
;" class=3D"">Western monarch butterflies spend their winters in Pismo Beac=
h&nbsp;</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: =
normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D"">and other sites on the central =
California coast. A few months later,&nbsp;</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px;=
font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=
=3D"">they breed in the Central Valley and as far north and east as Idaho.&=
nbsp;</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: no=
rmal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D"">But where they go in between rema=
ins an open question.</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal;=
line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); min-height: 19px;" class=3D""=
><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D""></span></div><div s=
tyle=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(=
51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=
=3D"">Now, a group of researchers wants the public=E2=80=99s help to solve =
that&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; lin=
e-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webki=
t-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">mystery.&nbsp;</span>They would like anyo=
ne who spots a monarch north of&nbsp;</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-=
stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D"">S=
anta Barbara this spring to snap a quick picture. The&nbsp;</div><div style=
=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, =
51, 51);" class=3D"">researchers =E2=80=94 from Washington State University=
, Tufts University,</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; l=
ine-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D"">&nbsp;the nonprofit=
Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, and&nbsp;</div><div style=3D=
"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51,=
51);" class=3D"">the University of California, Santa Cruz =E2=80=94 need p=
hotographic&nbsp;</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; lin=
e-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D"">evidence, a date and =
a location to confirm where the monarchs&nbsp;</div><div style=3D"margin: 0=
px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" cla=
ss=3D"">might be living. (Photos and information can be emailed to</div><di=
v style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: r=
gb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D"">&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href=3D"mailto:monarchmystery@ws=
u.edu" class=3D""><span style=3D"font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal;=
-webkit-font-kerning: none; color: rgb(50, 104, 145);" class=3D"">monarchm=
<ystery...></span></a>&nbsp;or uploaded on the iNaturalist app.)</div><d=
iv style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: =
rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><br class=3D""></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px=
; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=
=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">=E2=80=9CSomet=
hing=E2=80=99s going on in early spring,=E2=80=9D said Cheryl Schultz, a&nb=
sp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-heigh=
t: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-=
kerning: none;" class=3D"">professor at Washington State University in Vanc=
ouver.&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: nor=
mal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=
=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">Researchers know that winter su=
rvival isn=E2=80=99t the issue in the&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margi=
n: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"=
class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">short-te=
rm, she said.&nbsp;&nbsp;But they don=E2=80=99t know whether the monarchs</=
span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: no=
rmal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerni=
ng: none;" class=3D"">are not making it to breeding sites, not finding plan=
ts to nourish&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: no=
rmal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=
=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">them along the way, or not able=
to find mates.</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal=
; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-=
webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D""><br class=3D""></span></div><div sty=
le=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51=
, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D=
"">The Western monarch population, which lives west of the Rocky&nbsp;</spa=
n></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: norma=
l; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning:=
none;" class=3D"">Mountains, stood in the millions in the 1980s. In 2017, =
an annual&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal=
; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-=
webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">count found 200,000 butterflies. In =
2018, the tally fell to about&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; =
font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=
=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">30,000 =E2=80=
=94 a figure that held steady last year, said Elizabeth Crone,&nbsp;</span>=
</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal;=
color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: n=
one;" class=3D"">a biology professor at Tufts University in Medford, Mass.<=
/span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: n=
ormal; color: rgb(28, 30, 33); background-color: rgb(242, 243, 245); min-he=
ight: 15px;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=
=3D""></span><br class=3D""></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: =
normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span styl=
e=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">The monarch=E2=80=99s decline =
is part of a larger trend among dozens of&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"m=
argin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 5=
1);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">butt=
erfly species in the West, including creatures with names like&nbsp;</span>=
</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal;=
color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: n=
one;" class=3D"">field crescents, large marbles and Nevada skippers, said M=
att&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line=
-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit=
-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">Forister, an insect ecologist at the Unive=
rsity of Nevada, Reno,&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-st=
retch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><sp=
an style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">whose conclusions are b=
ased on a nearly 50-year set of data&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin=
: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" =
class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">compiled =
by Art Shapiro, a researcher at the University of&nbsp;</span></div><div st=
yle=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(5=
1, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=
=3D"">California, Davis. =E2=80=9CThe monarch is very clearly part of a lar=
ger&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line=
-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit=
-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">decline of butterflies in the West.=E2=80=
=9D</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-heigh=
t: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-=
kerning: none;" class=3D""><br class=3D""></span></div><div style=3D"margin=
: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" =
class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">Research =
pins the loss of Western butterflies on a variety of&nbsp;</span></div><div=
style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rg=
b(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" clas=
s=3D"">factors, including development, climate change, farming practices</s=
pan></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: nor=
mal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kernin=
g: none;" class=3D"">and the widespread use of pesticides by farmers, and o=
n home&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; l=
ine-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-web=
kit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">and business lawns, Dr. Forister said.<=
/span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: n=
ormal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); min-height: 22px;" class=3D""><span style=3D=
"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D""></span><br class=3D""></div><div s=
tyle=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(=
51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=
=3D"">For example, Dr. Schultz said that farms used to have rough,&nbsp;</s=
pan></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: nor=
mal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kernin=
g: none;" class=3D"">weedy borders that were great breeding grounds for the=
types</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-he=
ight: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-fo=
nt-kerning: none;" class=3D"">of plants that monarchs love. Newer farming p=
ractices have&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: no=
rmal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=
=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">pushed crops to the very edge o=
f the fields, leaving no room&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; =
font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=
=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">for these weed=
y margins, she said.</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: n=
ormal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); min-height: 19px;" clas=
s=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D""></span><br cl=
ass=3D""></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height=
: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-k=
erning: none;" class=3D"">Another factor, she said: Some homeowners, eager =
to attract&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: norma=
l; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"=
-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">monarchs, have planted tropical mil=
kweed. Although the butterflies&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px=
; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=
=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">will feed on t=
hem, these plants tend to spread disease, because&nbsp;</span></div><div st=
yle=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(5=
1, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=
=3D"">they don=E2=80=99t drop their leaves, Dr. Schultz said, which may be&=
nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-hei=
ght: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-fon=
t-kerning: none;" class=3D"">contributing to the declining monarch populati=
on. Native milkweed&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stret=
ch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span =
style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">supports the population wi=
thout this risk, she said.</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stre=
tch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); min-height: 22px;=
" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D""></span>=
<br class=3D""></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-=
height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-=
font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">Another factor, she said: Some homeowners, =
eager to attract&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch:=
normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span sty=
le=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">monarchs, have planted tropic=
al milkweed. Although the butterflies&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margi=
n: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);"=
class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">will fee=
d on them, these plants tend to spread disease, because&nbsp;</span></div><=
div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color:=
rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" c=
lass=3D"">they don=E2=80=99t drop their leaves, Dr. Schultz said, which may=
be&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line=
-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit=
-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">contributing to the declining monarch popu=
lation. Native milkweed</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch=
: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span st=
yle=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">&nbsp;supports the populatio=
n without this risk, she said.</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-=
stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); min-height: 2=
2px;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D""></s=
pan><br class=3D""></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; l=
ine-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-web=
kit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">Climate change also plays a role in the=
challenges facing monarchs&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; fo=
nt-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D"=
"><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">and other butterfl=
ies, said Chip Taylor, a professor emeritus at the&nbsp;</span></div><div s=
tyle=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(=
51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=
=3D"">University of Kansas, who also directs Monarch Watch, a network&nbsp;=
</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: =
normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-ker=
ning: none;" class=3D"">of students, teachers, volunteers and researchers. =
Temperatures&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: nor=
mal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=
=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">in the Western monarch=E2=80=99=
s overwintering sites along the coast now&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"m=
argin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 5=
1);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">aver=
age 2 degrees higher in January and February than they did&nbsp;</span></di=
v><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; col=
or: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;=
" class=3D"">just two decades ago =E2=80=94 the highest rate of increase ou=
tside&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; li=
ne-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webk=
it-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">Alaska, he said.</span></div><div style=
=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, =
51, 51); min-height: 22px;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning:=
none;" class=3D""></span><br class=3D""></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; f=
ont-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D=
""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">Western monarchs =
are quite similar to their Eastern cousins, just&nbsp;</span></div><div sty=
le=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51=
, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D=
"">a bit smaller and darker, Dr. Crone said. But they have a distinct&nbsp;=
</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: =
normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-ker=
ning: none;" class=3D"">migratory pattern.&nbsp;</span>While the Eastern mo=
narchs migrate from Mexico&nbsp;</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stret=
ch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D"">to as =
far away as New England and Southern Canada, the Western&nbsp;</div><div st=
yle=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(5=
1, 51, 51);" class=3D"">ones mostly remain in Southern California or migrat=
e from the&nbsp;</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line=
-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D"">mid-coast up as far as=
British Columbia and as far east as the&nbsp;</div><div style=3D"margin: 0=
px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" cla=
ss=3D"">Rockies, Dr. Schultz said.</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-str=
etch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><br =
class=3D""></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-heig=
ht: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font=
-kerning: none;" class=3D"">In the last couple of years, she said, the rang=
e of their breeding&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stret=
ch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span =
style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">grounds has been contracti=
ng. The butterflies are going inland&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin=
: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" =
class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">as far as=
Nevada, but they=E2=80=99re not making it as far as Washington&nbsp;</span=
></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal=
; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: =
none;" class=3D"">State anymore.</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; fon=
t-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""=
><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D""><br class=3D""></sp=
an></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: norm=
al; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning=
: none;" class=3D"">Like other insects, butterflies often have good years a=
nd bad.</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-h=
eight: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-f=
ont-kerning: none;" class=3D"">&nbsp;=E2=80=9CButterfly populations are bou=
ncy,=E2=80=9D Dr. Schultz said. =E2=80=9CWhile we&nbsp;</span></div><div st=
yle=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(5=
1, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=
=3D"">think the situation right now is very concerning, we do think there=
=E2=80=99s&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: norma=
l; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"=
-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">a lot of potential to turn it aroun=
d.=E2=80=9D</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; li=
ne-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); min-height: 22px;" class=3D""><s=
pan style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D""></span><br class=3D"">=
</div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal;=
color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: n=
one;" class=3D"">Dr. Schultz said she saw two reasons for hope. First, the =
population&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: norma=
l; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"=
-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">decline seen in 2017-18 wasn=E2=80=
=99t repeated last year. And second,&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin=
: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" =
class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">she=E2=80=
=99s seen butterfly populations rebound before.</span></div><div style=3D"m=
argin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 5=
1);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">When=
she started working to help preserve the Fender=E2=80=99s blue butterfly&n=
bsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-heig=
ht: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font=
-kerning: none;" class=3D"">in the early 1990s, there were only about 1,500=
of the insects left in&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-s=
tretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><s=
pan style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">the Willamette Valley =
in Oregon. This year, thanks to collaborative&nbsp;</span></div><div style=
=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, =
51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D""=
>efforts by citizens, farmers, private landowners and government,&nbsp;</sp=
an></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: norm=
al; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning=
: none;" class=3D"">there were almost 25,000.</span></div><div style=3D"mar=
gin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51)=
;" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D""><br cl=
ass=3D""></span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line=
-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit=
-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">=E2=80=9CThat=E2=80=99s the kind of commit=
ment that gives me both optimism&nbsp;</span></div><div style=3D"margin: 0p=
x; font-stretch: normal; line-height: normal; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" clas=
s=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning: none;" class=3D"">and the sense=
that we can do this,=E2=80=9D Dr. Schultz said. =E2=80=9CMy hope&nbsp;</sp=
an></div><div style=3D"margin: 0px; font-stretch: normal; line-height: norm=
al; color: rgb(51, 51, 51);" class=3D""><span style=3D"-webkit-font-kerning=
: none;" class=3D"">with Western monarchs is we can bring the population ba=
ck up.=E2=80=9D</span></div></div><div></div><br class=3D"">



<!-- |**|begin egp html banner|**| -->

<br>


<br>

<!-- |**|end egp html banner|**| -->


<div width=3D"1" style=3D"color: white; clear: both;"/>__._,_.___</div>

=20=20=20=20=20=20
=20=20

=20=20=20=20
<div id=3D"fromDMARC" style=3D"clear:both; margin-top: 10px;">
<hr style=3D"height:2px ; border-width:0; color:#E3E3E3; backgroun=
d-color:#E3E3E3;">
Posted by: Paul Cherubini &lt;<monarch...>&gt; <hr st=
yle=3D"height:2px ; border-width:0; color:#E3E3E3; background-color:#E3E3E3=
;">
</div>
<!-- Start Recommendations -->
<!-- End Recommendations -->



<!-- |**|begin egp html banner|**| -->

<img src=3D"http://geo.yahoo.com/serv?s=3D97476590/grpId=3D19593555/grpsp=
Id=3D1705724874/msgId=3D8250/stime=3D1584913662" width=3D"1" height=3D"1"> =
<br>

<!-- |**|end egp html banner|**| -->

=20=20=20=20
<!-- |**|begin egp html banner|**| -->

<br>



=20=20=20
=20=20=20=20=20
=20
<!-- |**|begin egp html banner|**| -->
<div id=3D"ygrp-vital" style=3D"background-color: #f2f2f2; font-fam=
ily: Verdana; font-size: 10px; margin-bottom: 10px; padding: 10px;">

<span id=3D"vithd" style=3D"font-weight: bold; color: #333; text-tr=
ansform: uppercase; "><a href=3D"https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/wester=
n_monarchs/info;_ylc=3DX3oDMTJmMTlyNW5iBF9TAzk3MzU5NzE0BGdycElkAzE5NTkzNTU1=
BGdycHNwSWQDMTcwNTcyNDg3NARzZWMDdnRsBHNsawN2Z2hwBHN0aW1lAzE1ODQ5MTM2NjI-" s=
tyle=3D"text-decoration: none;">Visit Your Group</a></span>

<ul style=3D"list-style-type: none; margin: 0; padding: 0; display: in=
line;">
</ul>
</div>


<div id=3D"ft" style=3D"font-family: Arial; font-size: 11px; margin-top: 5p=
x; padding: 0 2px 0 0; clear: both;">
<a href=3D"https://groups.yahoo.com/neo;_ylc=3DX3oDMTJlYnFsc20xBF9TAzk3ND=
c2NTkwBGdycElkAzE5NTkzNTU1BGdycHNwSWQDMTcwNTcyNDg3NARzZWMDZnRyBHNsawNnZnAEc=
3RpbWUDMTU4NDkxMzY2Mg--" style=3D"float: left;"><img src=3D"https://s.yimg.=
com/ru/0.9.12/min/css/yahoo_en-US_f_pw_101x21.png" height=3D"21" width=3D"1=
01" alt=3D"Yahoo! Groups" style=3D"border: 0;"/></a>
<div style=3D"color: #747575; float: right;"> &bull; <a href=3D"https://i=
nfo.yahoo.com/privacy/us/yahoo/groups/details.html" style=3D"text-decoratio=
n: none;">Privacy</a> &bull; <a href=3D"mailto:western_monarchs-unsubscribe=
@yahoogroups.com?subject=3DUnsubscribe" style=3D"text-decoration: none;">Un=
subscribe</a> &bull; <a href=3D"https://info.yahoo.com/legal/us/yahoo/utos/=
terms/" style=3D"text-decoration: none;">Terms of Use</a> </div>
</div>

<!-- |**|end egp html banner|**| -->

</div> <!-- ygrp-msg -->

=20=20=20


<br>

<!-- |**|end egp html banner|**| -->


<div style=3D"color: white; clear: both;"/>__,_._,___</div>
</body></html>
--Apple-Mail=_4E379BBF-2D59-4BBB-BEF4-3F94159FABBF--