Jump to :     |    View All Lists    |    FAQ
List: western_monarchs
Date: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 14:45:22 -0700
From: 'Georgia Goldfarb, MD' <georgia.goldfarb...> [western_monarchs] <western_monarchs...>
Subject: =?UTF-8?Q?RE:_=5Bwestern=5Fmonarchs=5D_What=E2=80=99s_Ha?= =?UTF-8?Q?ppening_to_the_=28Western=29_Monarch?= =?UTF-8?Q?_Butterfly_Population=3F_=28New_York?= =?UTF-8?Q?_Times=2C_March_20/20=29?=

------=_NextPart_000_0853_01D602B4.03EAD9E0
Content-Type: text/plain;
charset="UTF-8"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Oh, sooo interesting! Thanks,

georgia

=20

=20

=20

=20

From: <western_monarchs...> [mailto:western_monarchs@yahoogroups=
..com]=20
Sent: Wednesday, March 25, 2020 2:40 PM
To: <western_monarchs...>
Subject: Re: [western_monarchs] What=E2=80=99s Happening to the (Western) M=
onarch Butterfly Population? (New York Times, March 20/20)

=20

=20=20

Hi all,

=20

Yes, fully agree.=20

=20

"The pattern of recaptures suggested that butterflies tagged in the Los Ang=
eles Basin moved due east, those tagged in Santa Barbara County moved east =
or north-east, while those tagged north of Santa Barbara moved north-east, =
although differences between directions were not statistically significant =
(Wenner in Brower, 1995). The apparent divide between butterflies from Los =
Angeles and those from farther north was imposed by the Mojave Desert." Thi=
s cites the same correspondence between Wenner and Brower.

=20

This is not random. One population seems to move in one direction. The othe=
r population seems to move in another direction. When you compare one group=
s to the other to see if their directions are different, they are not stati=
stically different (as the sample sizes when separate are smaller and there=
is less power). But if you pool them into one, the remigration patterns ar=
e not random (larger sample size and more power).

=20

Be well, Francis

=20

Francis Villablanca

San Luis Obispo

=20

On Tue, Mar 24, 2020 at 11:46 PM Paul Cherubini <monarch...> <mailto:m=
<onarch...> [western_monarchs] <western_monarchs...> <m=
ailto:<western_monarchs...> > wrote:

=20=20

Francis: "Even if Lincoln was convincingly persuaded, without seeing

Wenner's arguments it is hard to agree or disagree.=E2=80=9D

=20

In addition to Lincoln, another co-author of Nagano et al 1993 paper

- Prof. Myron Zalucki - was similar pursuaded by Wenner=E2=80=99s statistic=
al=20

reanalysis as well as UC Davis entomology professor Hugh Dingle who

specializes in insect behavior.

=20

Evidence: In this 2005 paper=20

https://academic.oup.com/biolinnean/article/85/4/491/2691594

=20

Dingle & Zalucki wrote:=20

=20

"Tagging experiments showed that other monarchs from the winter=20

aggregations moved during a brief period in the spring up to 465 km=20

inland from the tagging sites (Nagano et al., 1993)..=20

=20

The pattern of recaptures suggested that butterflies tagged=20

in the Los Angeles Basin moved due east, those tagged in Santa Barbara=20

County moved east or north-east, while those tagged north of Santa=20

Barbara moved north-east, although differences between directions=20

were not statistically significant (Wenner in Brower, 1995).=20

=20

The apparent divide between butterflies from Los Angeles and those=20

from farther north was imposed by the Mojave Desert."

=20

Paul Cherubini

El Dorado, Calif.




------=_NextPart_000_0853_01D602B4.03EAD9E0
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable





<head>

<style type=3D"text/css">
<!--

/* start of attachment style */
.ygrp-photo-title{
clear: both;
font-size: smaller;
height: 15px;
overflow: hidden;
text-align: center;
width: 75px;
}
div.ygrp-photo{
background-position: center;
background-repeat: no-repeat;
background-color: white;
border: 1px solid black;
height: 62px;
width: 62px;
}

div.photo-title=20
a,
div.photo-title a:active,
div.photo-title a:hover,
div.photo-title a:visited {
text-decoration: none;=20
}

div.attach-table div.attach-row {
clear: both;
}

div.attach-table div.attach-row div {
float: left;
/* margin: 2px;*/
}

p {
clear: both;
padding: 15px 0 3px 0;
overflow: hidden;
}

div.ygrp-file {
width: 30px;
valign: middle;
}
div.attach-table div.attach-row div div a {
text-decoration: none;
}

div.attach-table div.attach-row div div span {
font-weight: normal;
}

div.ygrp-file-title {
font-weight: bold;
}
/* end of attachment style */
-->
</style>
</head>
<html xmlns:v=3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o=3D"urn:schemas-micr=
osoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w=3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" =
xmlns:m=3D"http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml" xmlns=3D"http:=
//www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"><head><meta http-equiv=3DContent-Type content=
=3D"text/html; charset=3Dutf-8"><meta name=3DGenerator content=3D"Microsoft=
Word 15 (filtered medium)"><!--[if !mso]><style>v\:* {behavior:url(#defaul=
t#VML);}
o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
..shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
</style><![endif]--><style><!--
/* Font Definitions */
@font-face
{font-family:Wingdings;
panose-1:5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0;}
@font-face
{font-family:"Cambria Math";
panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4;}
@font-face
{font-family:Calibri;
panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4;}
@font-face
{font-family:Consolas;
panose-1:2 11 6 9 2 2 4 3 2 4;}
@font-face
{font-family:Verdana;
panose-1:2 11 6 4 3 5 4 4 2 4;}
/* Style Definitions */
p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal
{margin:0in;
margin-bottom:.0001pt;
font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;}
a:link, span.MsoHyperlink
{mso-style-priority:99;
color:blue;
text-decoration:underline;}
a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed
{mso-style-priority:99;
color:purple;
text-decoration:underline;}
p
{mso-style-priority:99;
mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
margin-right:0in;
mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
margin-left:0in;
font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;}
code
{mso-style-priority:99;
font-family:"Courier New";}
pre
{mso-style-priority:99;
mso-style-link:"HTML Preformatted Char";
margin:0in;
margin-bottom:.0001pt;
font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:"Courier New";}
tt
{mso-style-priority:99;
font-family:"Courier New";}
span.HTMLPreformattedChar
{mso-style-name:"HTML Preformatted Char";
mso-style-priority:99;
mso-style-link:"HTML Preformatted";
font-family:Consolas;}
p.attach, li.attach, div.attach
{mso-style-name:attach;
mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
margin-right:0in;
mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
margin-left:0in;
font-size:9.0pt;
font-family:"Arial",sans-serif;}
p.bold, li.bold, div.bold
{mso-style-name:bold;
mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
margin-right:0in;
mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
margin-left:0in;
font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:"Arial",sans-serif;
font-weight:bold;}
p.green, li.green, div.green
{mso-style-name:green;
mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
margin-right:0in;
mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
margin-left:0in;
font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
color:#628C2A;}
p.replbq, li.replbq, div.replbq
{mso-style-name:replbq;
margin:3.0pt;
font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;}
p.ad, li.ad, div.ad
{mso-style-name:ad;
mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
margin-right:0in;
mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
margin-left:0in;
font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;}
p.underline, li.underline, div.underline
{mso-style-name:underline;
mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
margin-right:0in;
mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
margin-left:0in;
font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;}
span.yshortcuts
{mso-style-name:yshortcuts;}
p.ad1, li.ad1, div.ad1
{mso-style-name:ad1;
mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
margin-right:0in;
mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
margin-left:0in;
font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;}
p.ad2, li.ad2, div.ad2
{mso-style-name:ad2;
mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
margin-right:0in;
margin-bottom:7.5pt;
margin-left:0in;
font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;}
p.underline1, li.underline1, div.underline1
{mso-style-name:underline1;
mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
margin-right:0in;
mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
margin-left:0in;
font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;
text-decoration:underline;}
span.yshortcuts1
{mso-style-name:yshortcuts1;
font-family:"Verdana",sans-serif;
font-weight:bold;}
span.yshortcuts2
{mso-style-name:yshortcuts2;
font-family:"Verdana",sans-serif;
font-weight:normal;}
span.EmailStyle34
{mso-style-type:personal-reply;
font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
color:#1F497D;}
..MsoChpDefault
{mso-style-type:export-only;
font-size:10.0pt;}
@page WordSection1
{size:8.5in 11.0in;
margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in;}
div.WordSection1
{page:WordSection1;}
/* List Definitions */
@list l0
{mso-list-id:1960409129;
mso-list-template-ids:664145764;}
@list l0:level1
{mso-level-number-format:bullet;
mso-level-text:=EF=82=B7;
mso-level-tab-stop:.5in;
mso-level-number-position:left;
text-indent:-.25in;
mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Symbol;}
@list l0:level2
{mso-level-number-format:bullet;
mso-level-text:o;
mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in;
mso-level-number-position:left;
text-indent:-.25in;
mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:"Courier New";
mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";}
@list l0:level3
{mso-level-number-format:bullet;
mso-level-text:=EF=82=A7;
mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in;
mso-level-number-position:left;
text-indent:-.25in;
mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Wingdings;}
@list l0:level4
{mso-level-number-format:bullet;
mso-level-text:=EF=82=A7;
mso-level-tab-stop:2.0in;
mso-level-number-position:left;
text-indent:-.25in;
mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Wingdings;}
@list l0:level5
{mso-level-number-format:bullet;
mso-level-text:=EF=82=A7;
mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in;
mso-level-number-position:left;
text-indent:-.25in;
mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Wingdings;}
@list l0:level6
{mso-level-number-format:bullet;
mso-level-text:=EF=82=A7;
mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in;
mso-level-number-position:left;
text-indent:-.25in;
mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Wingdings;}
@list l0:level7
{mso-level-number-format:bullet;
mso-level-text:=EF=82=A7;
mso-level-tab-stop:3.5in;
mso-level-number-position:left;
text-indent:-.25in;
mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Wingdings;}
@list l0:level8
{mso-level-number-format:bullet;
mso-level-text:=EF=82=A7;
mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in;
mso-level-number-position:left;
text-indent:-.25in;
mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Wingdings;}
@list l0:level9
{mso-level-number-format:bullet;
mso-level-text:=EF=82=A7;
mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in;
mso-level-number-position:left;
text-indent:-.25in;
mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Wingdings;}
ol
{margin-bottom:0in;}
ul
{margin-bottom:0in;}
--></style><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
<o:shapedefaults v:ext=3D"edit" spidmax=3D"1026" />
</xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
<o:shapelayout v:ext=3D"edit">
<o:idmap v:ext=3D"edit" data=3D"1" />
</o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--></head><body bgcolor=3Dwhite lang=3DEN-US=
link=3Dblue vlink=3Dpurple>


<!-- |**|begin egp html banner|**| -->

<br><br>

<!-- |**|end egp html banner|**| -->


<div class=3DWordSection1><p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-size:11.=
0pt;font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;color:#1F497D'>Oh, sooo interesting!=
=C2=A0 Thanks,<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'fon=
t-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;color:#1F497D'>georgia<o:p><=
/o:p></span></p><p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-f=
amily:"Calibri",sans-serif;color:#1F497D'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><div>=
<p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Calibri",s=
ans-serif;color:#1F497D'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class=3DMsoNormal><=
span style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;color:#1F49=
7D'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p></div><p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'f=
ont-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;color:#1F497D'><o:p>&nbsp;=
</o:p></span></p><div><div style=3D'border:none;border-top:solid #E1E1E1 1.=
0pt;padding:3.0pt 0in 0in 0in'><p class=3DMsoNormal><b><span style=3D'font-=
size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>From:</span></b><span style=
=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'> western_monarchs@ya=
hoogroups.com [mailto:<western_monarchs...>] <br><b>Sent:</b> We=
dnesday, March 25, 2020 2:40 PM<br><b>To:</b> western_monarchs@yahoogroups.=
com<br><b>Subject:</b> Re: [western_monarchs] What=E2=80=99s Happening to t=
he (Western) Monarch Butterfly Population? (New York Times, March 20/20)<o:=
p></o:p></span></p></div></div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p><p=
class=3DMsoNormal>&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></p><div id=3Dygrp-mlmsg><div id=3Dygr=
p-msg><div id=3Dygrp-text><div><p class=3DMsoNormal>Hi all,<o:p></o:p></p><=
div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNorm=
al>Yes, fully agree.&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o=
:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-size=
:14.0pt;color:#2A2A2A'>&quot;The pattern of recaptures suggested that butte=
rflies tagged in the Los Angeles Basin moved due east, those tagged in Sant=
a Barbara County moved east or north-east, while those tagged north of Sant=
a Barbara moved north-east, although differences between directions were no=
t statistically significant (Wenner in&nbsp;</span>Brower, 1995<span style=
=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:#2A2A2A'>). The apparent divide between butterfl=
ies from Los Angeles and those from farther north was imposed by the Mojave=
Desert.&quot; This cites the&nbsp;same correspondence between&nbsp;Wenner =
and Brower.</span><o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp=
;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-family:"Aria=
l",sans-serif;color:#2A2A2A'>This is not random. One population seems to mo=
ve in one direction. The other population seems to move in another directio=
n. When you compare one groups to the other to see if their directions are =
different, they are not statistically different (as the sample sizes when s=
eparate are smaller and there is less power). But if you pool them into one=
, the remigration patterns are not random (larger sample&nbsp;size&nbsp;and=
more power).</span><o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nb=
sp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-family:"Ar=
ial",sans-serif;color:#2A2A2A'>Be well, Francis</span><o:p></o:p></p></div>=
<div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNor=
mal><span style=3D'font-family:"Arial",sans-serif;color:#2A2A2A'>Francis Vi=
llablanca</span><o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=
=3D'font-family:"Arial",sans-serif;color:#2A2A2A'>San Luis Obispo</span><o:=
p></o:p></p></div></div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p><div><div=
><p class=3DMsoNormal>On Tue, Mar 24, 2020 at 11:46 PM Paul Cherubini <a hr=
ef=3D"mailto:<monarch...>"><monarch...></a> [western_monarchs] &=
lt;<a href=3D"mailto:<western_monarchs...>">western_monarchs@yah=
oogroups.com</a>&gt; wrote:<o:p></o:p></p></div><blockquote style=3D'border=
:none;border-left:solid #CCCCCC 1.0pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;margin-left:4=
..8pt;margin-right:0in'><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'=
>&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></p><div id=3D"gmail-m_1442725581185368563ygrp-mlmsg"><d=
iv id=3D"gmail-m_1442725581185368563ygrp-msg"><div id=3D"gmail-m_1442725581=
185368563ygrp-text"><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><s=
pan style=3D'color:#2A2A2A;background:white'>Francis: &quot;</span>Even if =
Lincoln was convincingly persuaded, without seeing<o:p></o:p></p></div><div=
><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'>Wenner's arguments it is h=
ard to agree or disagree.=E2=80=9D<o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoN=
ormal style=3D'background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=
=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'>In addition to Lincoln, another co-=
author of Nagano et al 1993 paper<o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNo=
rmal style=3D'background:white'>- Prof. Myron Zalucki - was similar pursuad=
ed by Wenner=E2=80=99s statistical&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=
=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'>reanalysis as well as UC Davis ento=
mology professor Hugh Dingle who<o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNor=
mal style=3D'background:white'>specializes in insect behavior.<o:p></o:p></=
p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o=
:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'>Evidence:=
In this 2005 paper&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal sty=
le=3D'background:white'><a href=3D"https://academic.oup.com/biolinnean/arti=
cle/85/4/491/2691594" target=3D"_blank">https://academic.oup.com/biolinnean=
/article/85/4/491/2691594</a><o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal=
style=3D'background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoN=
ormal style=3D'background:white'>Dingle &amp; Zalucki wrote:&nbsp;<o:p></o:=
p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><o:p>&nbsp=
;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'>&quot=
;<span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A'>Tagging experiments showed that other&nbsp;m=
onarchs from the winter&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMs=
oNormal style=3D'background:white'><span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A'>aggregatio=
ns moved during a brief period&nbsp;in the spring up to 465 km&nbsp;</span>=
<o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><=
span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A'>inland from the tagging sites (</span>Nagano&n=
bsp;<i>et&nbsp;al</i>., 1993<span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A'>)..&nbsp;</span><=
o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><o=
:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:whit=
e'><span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A'>The pattern of&nbsp;recaptures suggested t=
hat butterflies tagged&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMso=
Normal style=3D'background:white'><span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A'>in the Los =
Angeles Basin moved due east, those tagged in Santa Barbara&nbsp;</span><o:=
p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><spa=
n style=3D'color:#2A2A2A'>County moved east or north-east, while those tagg=
ed north of Santa&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNorma=
l style=3D'background:white'><span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A'>Barbara moved no=
rth-east, although differences between directions&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></=
p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><span style=3D=
'color:#2A2A2A'>were not statistically significant (Wenner in&nbsp;</span>B=
rower, 1995<span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A'>).&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></p></di=
v><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p=
></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><span style=3D'=
color:#2A2A2A'>The&nbsp;apparent divide between butterflies from Los Angele=
s and those&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal styl=
e=3D'background:white'><span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A'>from farther north was=
imposed by the Mojave Desert.&quot;</span><o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p cla=
ss=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><=
p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A=
;background:white'>Paul Cherubini<o:p></o:p></span></p></div><div><p class=
=3DMsoNormal style=3D'background:white'><span style=3D'color:#2A2A2A;backgr=
ound:white'>El Dorado, Calif.<o:p></o:p></span></p></div></div></div></div>=
</div></blockquote></div></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'col=
or:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p></div></div>



<!-- |**|begin egp html banner|**| -->

<br>


<br>

<!-- |**|end egp html banner|**| -->


<div width=3D"1" style=3D"color: white; clear: both;"/>__._,_.___</div>

=20=20=20=20=20=20
=20=20

=20=20=20=20
<div id=3D"fromDMARC" style=3D"clear:both; margin-top: 10px;">
<hr style=3D"height:2px ; border-width:0; color:#E3E3E3; backgroun=
d-color:#E3E3E3;">
Posted by: &quot;Georgia Goldfarb, MD&quot; &lt;georgia.goldfarb@h=
ealthequality.net&gt; <hr style=3D"height:2px ; border-width:0; col=
or:#E3E3E3; background-color:#E3E3E3;">
</div>
<!-- Start Recommendations -->
<!-- End Recommendations -->



<!-- |**|begin egp html banner|**| -->

<img src=3D"http://geo.yahoo.com/serv?s=3D97476590/grpId=3D19593555/grpsp=
Id=3D1705724874/msgId=3D8263/stime=3D1585173162" width=3D"1" height=3D"1"> =
<br>

<!-- |**|end egp html banner|**| -->

=20=20=20=20
<!-- |**|begin egp html banner|**| -->

<br>



=20=20=20
=20=20=20=20=20
=20
<!-- |**|begin egp html banner|**| -->
<div id=3D"ygrp-vital" style=3D"background-color: #f2f2f2; font-fam=
ily: Verdana; font-size: 10px; margin-bottom: 10px; padding: 10px;">

<span id=3D"vithd" style=3D"font-weight: bold; color: #333; text-tr=
ansform: uppercase; "><a href=3D"https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/wester=
n_monarchs/info;_ylc=3DX3oDMTJmcWFmaHFxBF9TAzk3MzU5NzE0BGdycElkAzE5NTkzNTU1=
BGdycHNwSWQDMTcwNTcyNDg3NARzZWMDdnRsBHNsawN2Z2hwBHN0aW1lAzE1ODUxNzMxNjI-" s=
tyle=3D"text-decoration: none;">Visit Your Group</a></span>

<ul style=3D"list-style-type: none; margin: 0; padding: 0; display: in=
line;">
</ul>
</div>


<div id=3D"ft" style=3D"font-family: Arial; font-size: 11px; margin-top: 5p=
x; padding: 0 2px 0 0; clear: both;">
<a href=3D"https://groups.yahoo.com/neo;_ylc=3DX3oDMTJlYW1iZGNsBF9TAzk3ND=
c2NTkwBGdycElkAzE5NTkzNTU1BGdycHNwSWQDMTcwNTcyNDg3NARzZWMDZnRyBHNsawNnZnAEc=
3RpbWUDMTU4NTE3MzE2Mg--" style=3D"float: left;"><img src=3D"https://s.yimg.=
com/ru/0.9.12/min/css/yahoo_en-US_f_pw_101x21.png" height=3D"21" width=3D"1=
01" alt=3D"Yahoo! Groups" style=3D"border: 0;"/></a>
<div style=3D"color: #747575; float: right;"> &bull; <a href=3D"https://i=
nfo.yahoo.com/privacy/us/yahoo/groups/details.html" style=3D"text-decoratio=
n: none;">Privacy</a> &bull; <a href=3D"mailto:western_monarchs-unsubscribe=
@yahoogroups.com?subject=3DUnsubscribe" style=3D"text-decoration: none;">Un=
subscribe</a> &bull; <a href=3D"https://info.yahoo.com/legal/us/yahoo/utos/=
terms/" style=3D"text-decoration: none;">Terms of Use</a> </div>
</div>

<!-- |**|end egp html banner|**| -->

</div> <!-- ygrp-msg -->

=20=20=20


<br>

<!-- |**|end egp html banner|**| -->


<div style=3D"color: white; clear: both;"/>__,_._,___</div>
</body></html>
------=_NextPart_000_0853_01D602B4.03EAD9E0--