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List: Carolina-Leps
Date: Mon, 29 Mar 2021 19:01:09 -0400
From: Harry LeGrand (via carolinaleps Mailing List) <carolinaleps...>
Subject: Re: march leps + question(s) about azures

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Thanks for the comments of Harry P. that Summer Azures also do use American
Holly. I see his comments doubting that it uses the smaller Coastal Plain
bay/pocosin species like *I. glabra, I. coriacea, I. vomitoria*. I do note
that Holly Azure can occur in locally big numbers in pocosins and bay
forest habitats -- Summer Azure seems not to do that in spring, but as one
here and there.

So -- that azure seen around an American Holly at the Sandhills Community
College Garden could easily be a Summer Azure. That is not "pocosin/bay"
habitat there.

I think we are all beginning to "hate" Summer Azure, like we "hate" Pearl
Crescent -- hating in terms of them always seeming to occur in the same
places and same times as more desired azure and crescent species!! Just
when you think you might have a good azure or crescent -- is it "just" a
Summer Azure or "just" a Pearl Crescent?!

Harry LeGrand

On Mon, Mar 29, 2021 at 5:48 PM Salman Abdulali <carolinaleps...>
wrote:

> According to Harry Pavulaan:
>
> American holly (Ilex opaca) unfortunately, attracts BOTH Holly Azure and
> Summer Azure (spring brood). We [Pavulaan and Wright] discovered this
> after
> describing Holly Azure. Holly Azure uses Ilex opaca and inkberry (Ilex
> glabra)
> exclusively in southern New Jersey, from where we described the butterfly,
> and
> Summer Azure does not produce a spring flight, which is both interesting
> and
> odd at the same time. In subsequent years, I discovered a site in Maryla=
nd
> where Spring, Summer, and Holly azures were ALL using Ilex opaca! What w=
as
> odd, and also disturbing, was that Holly Azure had disappeared from that
> site,
> apparently being replaced by Spring Azure and Summer Azure in the holly
> forests on the western side of Chesapeake Bay. Then I discovered that
> Summer
> and Spring azures were using Ilex opaca all around the Chesapeake Bay. So
> it
> is possible that Summer Azure uses Ilex opaca down south too but
> apparently it
> does not use Ilex glabra or yaupon (Ilex vomitoria). I seriously doubt
> you=E2=80=99ll
> find Spring Azure on Ilex opaca down there [in NC] but it is possible.
>
>
> Your (in eastern NC) earliest azures are certainly Summer Azure (spring
> brood). These can emerge in mid-winter, while Spring Azure and Holly
> Azure do
> not, except in March. Holly Azure seems capable of emerging in early
> March,
> thus being very difficult to distinguish from Summer Azure, which emerges
> in
> March. The rule would be: if there is holly (Ilex spp.), it could be
> either
> Holly or Summer azures; if there is NO holly, then it cannot be Holly
> Azure.
>
>
>
> https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://leplog.wordpress.com/2019/04/08/more-=
or-less-annual-azure-refresher/__;!!OToaGQ!7LUNlFES1M8nHSxYpVeRP7L3zjGrN5Gj=
6FudL4BxvnQBm5Gn2i5BkdNzeJ3UOEFTS40$=20
> <https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://leplog.wordpress.com/2019/04/08/more=
-or-less-annual-azure-refresher/__;!!OToaGQ!5alN4_bXVo_bcBWSAluIQuk3udfD2Xl=
fp9BRBCGF6tPJ4wmeX6HDbCrkcx0Q7eChnyg$>
>
> Moreover, since there is Holly almost everywhere, and (in good years)
> there are Summer Azures flying almost everywhere in the summer, the
> presence or absence of Holly is not really helpful for identification.
>
> Salman Abdulali
> Greenville, NC
>
> On Mar 29, 2021, at 5:26 PM, Jan Hansen (via carolinaleps Mailing List) <
> <carolinaleps...> wrote:
>
> Hi Jeff and everyone,
>
> I was not aware that Summer Azures have been documented using hollies, and
> given that information, I=E2=80=99m wondering if any azure in the Coastal=
Plain
> should be reported as Summer/ Holly Azure if a diagnostic photo isn=E2=80=
=99t
> provided.
>
> I have been operating under the assumption that an azure that is hanging
> around and seemingly attracted to a holly can be safely called a Holly
> Azure, but now that seems like a faulty assumption. Perhaps a better
> assumption is that it is highly likely to be a Holly Azure, but could be=
a
> Summer Azure, and given that possibility, regardless of how slim, is it
> better to simply report Holly/Summer Azure?
>
> I=E2=80=99m reminded of the =E2=80=9CWestern Flycatcher=E2=80=9D complex =
in the birding world. I
> feel confident that any =E2=80=9Cwestern type=E2=80=9D flycatcher that tu=
rns up in the east
> is almost certainly a Pacific-slope Flycatcher, but unless I hear it I
> can=E2=80=99t rule out the possibility of it being a Cordilleran. Hence I=
am
> unwilling to label any non-vocalizing member of this complex, despite
> knowing that the odds heavily favor Pacific-slope given its tendency to
> wander widely versus the more sedentary nature of Cordilleran.
>
> It sounds as though I should be treating Summer and Holly Azures in the
> same way. Any thoughts on this conundrum would be appreciated.
>
>
>
> Jan Hansen
> Chapel Hill NC
> 919-259-9423
> https://urldefense.com/v3/__http://www.otusasiotours.com__;!!OToaGQ!7LUNl=
FES1M8nHSxYpVeRP7L3zjGrN5Gj6FudL4BxvnQBm5Gn2i5BkdNzeJ3UThKKf24$=20
> <https://urldefense.com/v3/__http://www.otusasiotours.com__;!!OToaGQ!4X-J=
5y40iiK6cFjqFdVSJxqKMKnFMK0j6CYPZQ6ytiRDVDN177hzB90Yb731L5In2O8$>
>
> Sent from my iPhone
>
> On Mar 29, 2021, at 11:25 AM, Jeff Pippen <carolinaleps...> wrote:
>
> =EF=BB=BFHi Matt and All,
>
> Great questions and nice sightings!
>
> Regarding posting every sighting, common or rare, yes, if you would like
> to do that, we are always happy to read them! Harry LeGrand additionally
> records the data in a master spreadsheet he uses to update the annual Not=
es
> on the Butterflies of NC Approximation by him and Tom Howard. Personally,
> if there=E2=80=99s only a few common things on a day=E2=80=99s list, I do=
n=E2=80=99t post them, but
> I enter them into a spreadsheet that I send to Harry & Tom at the end of
> the year, so they end up with a complete record of all my sightings. I=
=E2=80=99m
> sure they=E2=80=99d be happy to have you do that as well, if you=E2=80=99=
d like.
>
> Re: your azures, to be SURE, you would want to get a good photo/specimen
> of the upper sides. Both Summer and Holly Azures can use American Holly f=
or
> a host plant, and Spring Azure could certainly be on the wing now, too.
> Note that the use of hollies by Summer Azure is a relatively newly
> documented phenomenon so may not be in the references.
>
> Cheers,
> Jeff
> --
> Jeffrey S. Pippen
> Durham, NC
> https://urldefense.com/v3/__http://www.jeffpippen.com/__;!!OToaGQ!7LUNlFE=
S1M8nHSxYpVeRP7L3zjGrN5Gj6FudL4BxvnQBm5Gn2i5BkdNzeJ3U5Gak_-A$=20
> <https://urldefense.com/v3/__http://www.jeffpippen.com/__;!!OToaGQ!4_3p8J=
4gVlbbxxii-PLBqsOFbFpogQ-U3yflXPMVWEYiqGtJbCCjEnPFNhv-BUMzEKE$>
>
> On Mar 29, 2021, at 8:00 AM, Matt Spangler (via carolinaleps Mailing List)
> <carolinaleps...> wrote:
>
> I=E2=80=99m relatively new to the listserv and trying to get a feel for w=
hether to
> report every single sighting, or only rare sightings, or only impressive
> double-digit checklists, etc. I haven=E2=80=99t seen too many leps so far=
this
> year, so I figured I=E2=80=99d wait to send an email until I saw some =E2=
=80=9Cgood=E2=80=9D ones.
>
>
> On 3/28, at the Sandhills Community College gardens (Moore Co) I saw the
> following:
> ETS 3
> Cloudless Sulphur 2
> Henry=E2=80=99s Elfin 3 (one ovipositing on Am. Holly)
> Azure sp. 2.
>
> *I have a question about the azures. *Two of them were flying high around
> one or two American Hollies, occasionally landing near the top (but only
> for an instant) (perhaps ovipositing, but I couldn=E2=80=99t tell), then =
departing
> to continue circling the area, always sticking close to the holly trees. =
Do
> you think it=E2=80=99s safe to call the azures Holly Azures given their a=
ffinity
> for the hollies, or might they be spring-form Summers? I read over the
> reference material that Salman shared earlier this spring, and it seems
> that either are possible. I got some poor quality pictures; I expect they
> will not be helpful, but here they are anyway:
> https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.e-butterfly.org/ebapp/en/checklis=
ts/view/107716__;!!OToaGQ!7LUNlFES1M8nHSxYpVeRP7L3zjGrN5Gj6FudL4BxvnQBm5Gn2=
i5BkdNzeJ3UKwcCK_4$=20
> <https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.e-butterfly.org/ebapp/en/checkli=
sts/view/107716__;!!OToaGQ!_57K8ila57uowa_0c9YBwgnYphmVoULCKYfob1Cgd8jt3pFx=
Pb_pXJ5GibSPhUIj-bM$>
> .
>
>
> Other sightings from March:
>
> 3/27, Orange Co, Occoneechee Mountain SNA
> ETS 1
> Azure sp. 1 *(Another azure question=E2=80=94is it safe to call these spr=
ing-form
> Summer?* Does anyone have more precise date ranges for when Spring Azures
> fly in the piedmont?)
> (no elfins)
>
> 3/26 Chatham Co, Home
> Falcate Orangetip 2
> ETS 1
>
> 3/22 Chatham Co, Jordan Lake ESF
> ETS 1
>
> 3/18 Chatham Co, Home
> Falcate Orangetip 1
>
> 3/14 Chatham Co, Home
> Question Mark 1
> Falcate Orangetip 1
> Azure sp. 1* (same question as above, but from 3/14)*
>
> 3/14 Chatham Co, Jordan Lake ESF
> Azure sp. 4 (same)
>
> 3/12 Pender Co, Holly Shelter GL
> Cloudless Sulphur 2
>
> 3/9 Chatham Co, Home
> Question Mark 1
>
> Best,
>
> Matt Spangler
> Chatham Co, NC
> https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://spanglerwoodbirds.com__;!!OToaGQ!7LUN=
lFES1M8nHSxYpVeRP7L3zjGrN5Gj6FudL4BxvnQBm5Gn2i5BkdNzeJ3UbkBYQFU$=20
> <https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://spanglerwoodbirds.com__;!!OToaGQ!_57=
K8ila57uowa_0c9YBwgnYphmVoULCKYfob1Cgd8jt3pFxPb_pXJ5GibSP3P_MXZA$>
>
>
>
>

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<div dir=3D"ltr"><div>Thanks for the comments of Harry P. that Summer Azure=
s also do use American Holly.=C2=A0 I see his comments doubting that it use=
s the smaller Coastal Plain bay/pocosin species like <i>I. glabra, I. coria=
cea, I. vomitoria</i>.=C2=A0 I do note that Holly Azure can occur in locall=
y big numbers in pocosins and bay forest habitats -- Summer Azure seems not=
to do that in spring, but as one here and there.</div><div><br></div><div>=
So -- that azure seen around an American Holly at the Sandhills Community C=
ollege Garden could easily be a Summer Azure.=C2=A0 That is not &quot;pocos=
in/bay&quot; habitat there.</div><div><br></div><div>I think we are all beg=
inning to &quot;hate&quot; Summer Azure, like we &quot;hate&quot; Pearl Cre=
scent -- hating in terms of them always seeming to occur in the same places=
and same times as more desired azure and crescent species!!=C2=A0 Just whe=
n you think you might have a good azure or crescent -- is it &quot;just&quo=
t; a Summer Azure or &quot;just&quot; a Pearl Crescent?!</div><div><br></di=
v><div>Harry LeGrand<br></div></div><br><div class=3D"gmail_quote"><div dir=
=3D"ltr" class=3D"gmail_attr">On Mon, Mar 29, 2021 at 5:48 PM Salman Abdula=
li &lt;<a href=3D"mailto:<carolinaleps...>"><carolinaleps...></a>&g=
t; wrote:<br></div><blockquote class=3D"gmail_quote" style=3D"margin:0px 0p=
x 0px 0.8ex;border-left:1px solid rgb(204,204,204);padding-left:1ex"><div s=
tyle=3D"overflow-wrap: break-word;">According to Harry Pavulaan:<div><br></=
div><div><blockquote type=3D"cite"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0p=
x;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream C=
harter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">American holly (Ile=
x opaca) unfortunately, attracts BOTH Holly Azure and</span><br style=3D"co=
lor:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;f=
ont-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vertic=
al-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;f=
ont-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">Summer Azure (spring brood).=C2=A0 We [=
Pavulaan and Wright] discovered this after</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,=
51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16=
px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:ba=
seline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16=
px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">describing Holly Azure. Holly Azure uses Ilex opac=
a and inkberry (Ilex glabra)</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font-fa=
mily:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><span styl=
e=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font-fa=
mily:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(1=
28,128,0)">exclusively in southern New Jersey, from where we described the =
butterfly, and</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&=
quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0p=
x none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&=
quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">Sum=
mer Azure does not produce a spring flight, which is both interesting and</=
span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream C=
harter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0p=
x;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream C=
harter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">odd at the same tim=
e.=C2=A0 In subsequent years, I discovered a site in Maryland</span><br sty=
le=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;=
,serif;font-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0p=
x;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;=
,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">where Spring, Summer, and Holly=
azures were ALL using Ilex opaca!=C2=A0 What was</span><br style=3D"color:=
rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-=
size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-a=
lign:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-=
size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">odd, and also disturbing, was that Holly Az=
ure had disappeared from that site,</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);=
font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><sp=
an style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;=
font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;colo=
r:rgb(128,128,0)">apparently being replaced by Spring Azure and Summer Azur=
e in the holly</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&=
quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0p=
x none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&=
quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">for=
ests on the western side of Chesapeake Bay.=C2=A0 Then I discovered that Su=
mmer</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitst=
ream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;mar=
gin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitst=
ream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">and Spring az=
ures were using Ilex opaca all around the Chesapeake Bay.=C2=A0 So it</span=
><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Chart=
er&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;pa=
dding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Chart=
er&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">is possible that Summer=
Azure uses Ilex opaca down south too but apparently it</span><br style=3D"=
color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif=
;font-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vert=
ical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif=
;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">does not use Ilex glabra or yaupon (I=
lex vomitoria).=C2=A0 I seriously doubt you=E2=80=99ll</span><br style=3D"c=
olor:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;=
font-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0px;verti=
cal-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;=
font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">find Spring Azure on Ilex opaca down t=
here [in NC] but it is possible.</span></blockquote><div><br></div><div><bl=
ockquote type=3D"cite"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0p=
x;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;=
,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">Your (in eastern NC) earliest a=
zures are certainly Summer Azure (spring</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51=
,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px=
"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:base=
line;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px=
;color:rgb(128,128,0)">brood).=C2=A0 These can emerge in mid-winter, while =
Spring Azure and Holly Azure do</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font=
-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><span s=
tyle=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font=
-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rg=
b(128,128,0)">not, except in March.=C2=A0 Holly Azure seems capable of emer=
ging in early March,</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Geo=
rgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><span style=3D"bor=
der:0px none;margin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Geo=
rgia,&quot;Bitstream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0=
)">thus being very difficult to distinguish from Summer Azure, which emerge=
s in</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitst=
ream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;mar=
gin:0px;padding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitst=
ream Charter&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">March.=C2=A0 =
The rule would be: if there is holly (Ilex spp.), it could be either</span>=
<br style=3D"color:rgb(51,51,51);font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charte=
r&quot;,serif;font-size:16px"><span style=3D"border:0px none;margin:0px;pad=
ding:0px;vertical-align:baseline;font-family:Georgia,&quot;Bitstream Charte=
r&quot;,serif;font-size:16px;color:rgb(128,128,0)">Holly or Summer azures; =
if there is NO holly, then it cannot be Holly Azure.</span></blockquote><di=
v><br></div><a href=3D"https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://leplog.wordpress=
.com/2019/04/08/more-or-less-annual-azure-refresher/__;!!OToaGQ!5alN4_bXVo_=
bcBWSAluIQuk3udfD2Xlfp9BRBCGF6tPJ4wmeX6HDbCrkcx0Q7eChnyg$" target=3D"_blank=
">https://leplog.wordpress.com/2019/04/08/more-or-less-annual-azure-refresh=
er/</a></div><div><br></div><div>Moreover, since there is Holly almost ever=
ywhere, and (in good years) there are Summer Azures flying almost everywher=
e in the summer, the presence or absence of Holly is not really helpful for=
identification.</div><div><br></div><div>Salman Abdulali</div><div>Greenvi=
lle, NC<br><div><br><blockquote type=3D"cite"><div>On Mar 29, 2021, at 5:26=
PM, Jan Hansen (via carolinaleps Mailing List) &lt;<a href=3D"mailto:carol=
<inaleps...>" target=3D"_blank"><carolinaleps...></a>&gt; wrote:</d=
iv><br><div><div dir=3D"auto">Hi Jeff and everyone,<div><br></div><div>I wa=
s not aware that Summer Azures have been documented using hollies, and give=
n that information, I=E2=80=99m wondering if any azure in the Coastal Plain=
should be reported as Summer/ Holly Azure if a diagnostic photo isn=E2=80=
=99t provided.=C2=A0</div><div><br></div><div>I have been operating under t=
he assumption that an azure that is hanging around and seemingly attracted =
to a holly can be safely called a Holly Azure, but now that seems like a fa=
ulty assumption. Perhaps a better assumption is that it is highly likely to=
be a Holly Azure, but could =C2=A0be a Summer Azure, and given that possib=
ility, regardless of how slim, is it better to simply report Holly/Summer A=
zure?</div><div><br></div><div>I=E2=80=99m reminded of the =E2=80=9CWestern=
Flycatcher=E2=80=9D complex in the birding world. I feel confident that an=
y =E2=80=9Cwestern type=E2=80=9D flycatcher that turns up in the east is al=
most certainly a Pacific-slope Flycatcher, but unless I hear it I can=E2=80=
=99t rule out the possibility of it being a Cordilleran. Hence I am unwilli=
ng to label any non-vocalizing member of this complex, despite knowing that=
the odds heavily favor Pacific-slope given its tendency to wander widely v=
ersus the more sedentary nature of Cordilleran.=C2=A0</div><div><br></div><=
div>It sounds as though I should be treating Summer and Holly Azures in the=
same way. Any thoughts on this conundrum would be appreciated.=C2=A0</div>=
<div><br></div><div><br><br><div dir=3D"ltr"><div>Jan Hansen</div><div>Chap=
el Hill NC</div><div>919-259-9423</div><div><a href=3D"https://urldefense.c=
om/v3/__http://www.otusasiotours.com__;!!OToaGQ!4X-J5y40iiK6cFjqFdVSJxqKMKn=
FMK0j6CYPZQ6ytiRDVDN177hzB90Yb731L5In2O8$" target=3D"_blank">www.otusasioto=
urs.com</a></div><div><br></div>Sent from my iPhone</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><=
br><blockquote type=3D"cite">On Mar 29, 2021, at 11:25 AM, Jeff Pippen &lt;=
<a href=3D"mailto:<carolinaleps...>" target=3D"_blank">carolinaleps@duk=
e.edu</a>&gt; wrote:<br><br></blockquote></div><blockquote type=3D"cite"><d=
iv dir=3D"ltr">=EF=BB=BFHi Matt and All,<div><br></div><div>Great questions=
and nice sightings!</div><div><br></div><div>Regarding posting every sight=
ing, common or rare, yes, if you would like to do that, we are always happy=
to read them!=C2=A0 Harry LeGrand additionally records the data in a maste=
r spreadsheet he uses to update the annual Notes on the Butterflies of NC A=
pproximation by him and Tom Howard.=C2=A0 Personally, if there=E2=80=99s on=
ly a few common things on a day=E2=80=99s list, I don=E2=80=99t post them, =
but I enter them into a spreadsheet that I send to Harry &amp; Tom at the e=
nd of the year, so they end up with a complete record of all my sightings.=
=C2=A0 I=E2=80=99m sure they=E2=80=99d be happy to have you do that as well=
, if you=E2=80=99d like.</div><div><br></div><div>Re: your azures, to be SU=
RE, you would want to get a good photo/specimen of the upper sides. Both Su=
mmer and Holly Azures can use American Holly for a host plant, and Spring A=
zure could certainly be on the wing now, too.=C2=A0 Note that the use of ho=
llies by Summer Azure is a relatively newly documented phenomenon so may no=
t be in the references.</div><div><br></div><div>Cheers,</div><div>Jeff<br>=
<div>
<div style=3D"letter-spacing:normal;text-align:start;text-indent:0px;text-t=
ransform:none;white-space:normal;word-spacing:0px"><div style=3D"letter-spa=
cing:normal;text-align:start;text-indent:0px;text-transform:none;white-spac=
e:normal;word-spacing:0px"><div><div>--</div><div>Jeffrey S. Pippen</div><d=
iv>Durham, NC=C2=A0</div><div><a href=3D"https://urldefense.com/v3/__http:/=
/www.jeffpippen.com/__;!!OToaGQ!4_3p8J4gVlbbxxii-PLBqsOFbFpogQ-U3yflXPMVWEY=
iqGtJbCCjEnPFNhv-BUMzEKE$" target=3D"_blank">http://www.jeffpippen.com/</a>=
</div></div></div></div>
</div>
<br><div><blockquote type=3D"cite"><div>On Mar 29, 2021, at 8:00 AM, Matt S=
pangler (via carolinaleps Mailing List) &lt;<a href=3D"mailto:carolinaleps@=
duke.edu" target=3D"_blank"><carolinaleps...></a>&gt; wrote:</div><br><=
div><div style=3D"font-family:Helvetica;font-size:14px;font-style:normal;fo=
nt-variant-caps:normal;font-weight:normal;letter-spacing:normal;text-align:=
start;text-indent:0px;text-transform:none;white-space:normal;word-spacing:0=
px"><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"=
>I=E2=80=99m relatively new to the listserv and trying to get a feel for wh=
ether to report every single sighting, or only rare sightings, or only impr=
essive double-digit checklists, etc. I haven=E2=80=99t seen too many leps s=
o far this year, so I figured I=E2=80=99d wait to send an email until I saw=
some =E2=80=9Cgood=E2=80=9D ones.<span>=C2=A0</span><u></u><u></u></div><d=
iv style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u></=
u>=C2=A0<u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Ca=
libri,sans-serif">On 3/28, at the Sandhills Community College gardens (Moor=
e Co) I saw the following:<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font=
-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">ETS 3<u></u><u></u></div><div st=
yle=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Cloudless =
Sulphur 2<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-f=
amily:Calibri,sans-serif">Henry=E2=80=99s Elfin 3 (one ovipositing on Am. H=
olly)<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-famil=
y:Calibri,sans-serif">Azure sp. 2.<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:=
0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u></u>=C2=A0<u></u></di=
v><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><=
b>I have a question about the azures.<span>=C2=A0</span></b>Two of them wer=
e flying high around one or two American Hollies, occasionally landing near=
the top (but only for an instant) (perhaps ovipositing, but I couldn=E2=80=
=99t tell), then departing to continue circling the area, always sticking c=
lose to the holly trees. Do you think it=E2=80=99s safe to call the azures =
Holly Azures given their affinity for the hollies, or might they be spring-=
form Summers? I read over the reference material that Salman shared earlier=
this spring, and it seems that either are possible. I got some poor qualit=
y pictures; I expect they will not be helpful, but here they are anyway:<sp=
an>=C2=A0</span><a href=3D"https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.e-butter=
fly.org/ebapp/en/checklists/view/107716__;!!OToaGQ!_57K8ila57uowa_0c9YBwgnY=
phmVoULCKYfob1Cgd8jt3pFxPb_pXJ5GibSPhUIj-bM$" style=3D"color:rgb(5,99,193);=
text-decoration:underline" target=3D"_blank">https://www.e-butterfly.org/eb=
app/en/checklists/view/107716</a>.<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:=
0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u></u>=C2=A0<u></u></di=
v><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><=
u></u>=C2=A0<u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-famil=
y:Calibri,sans-serif">Other sightings from March:<u></u><u></u></div><div s=
tyle=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u></u>=
=C2=A0<u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Cali=
bri,sans-serif">3/27, Orange Co, Occoneechee Mountain SNA<u></u><u></u></di=
v><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">E=
TS 1<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family=
:Calibri,sans-serif">Azure sp. 1<span>=C2=A0</span><b>(Another azure questi=
on=E2=80=94is it safe to call these spring-form Summer?</b><span>=C2=A0</sp=
an>Does anyone have more precise date ranges for when Spring Azures fly in =
the piedmont?)<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;f=
ont-family:Calibri,sans-serif">(no elfins)<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D=
"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u></u>=C2=A0<u>=
</u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-=
serif">3/26 Chatham Co, Home<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;fo=
nt-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Falcate Orangetip 2<u></u><u><=
/u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-s=
erif">ETS 1<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font=
-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u></u>=C2=A0<u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:=
0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">3/22 Chatham Co, Jordan =
Lake ESF<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-fa=
mily:Calibri,sans-serif">ETS 1<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;=
font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u></u>=C2=A0<u></u></div><d=
iv style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">3/18 =
Chatham Co, Home<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt=
;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Falcate Orangetip 1<span>=C2=A0</span><u><=
/u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri=
,sans-serif"><u></u>=C2=A0<u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:1=
1pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">3/14 Chatham Co, Home<u></u><u></u></di=
v><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Q=
uestion Mark 1<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;f=
ont-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Falcate Orangetip 1<u></u><u></u></div><div =
style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Azure sp=
. 1<b><span>=C2=A0</span>(same question as above, but from 3/14)</b><u></u>=
<u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sa=
ns-serif"><u></u>=C2=A0<u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt=
;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">3/14 Chatham Co, Jordan Lake ESF<u></u><u>=
</u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-=
serif">Azure sp. 4 (same)<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-=
size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u></u>=C2=A0<u></u></div><div st=
yle=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">3/12 Pende=
r Co, Holly Shelter GL<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-siz=
e:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Cloudless Sulphur 2<u></u><u></u></d=
iv><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">=
<u></u>=C2=A0<u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-fami=
ly:Calibri,sans-serif">3/9 Chatham Co, Home<u></u><u></u></div><div style=
=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Question Mark=
1<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:C=
alibri,sans-serif"><u></u>=C2=A0<u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-=
size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Best,<u></u><u></u></div><div sty=
le=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><u></u>=C2=
=A0<u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri=
,sans-serif">Matt Spangler<u></u><u></u></div><div style=3D"margin:0in;font=
-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">Chatham Co, NC<u></u><u></u></di=
v><div style=3D"margin:0in;font-size:11pt;font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><=
a href=3D"https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://spanglerwoodbirds.com__;!!OTo=
aGQ!_57K8ila57uowa_0c9YBwgnYphmVoULCKYfob1Cgd8jt3pFxPb_pXJ5GibSP3P_MXZA$" s=
tyle=3D"color:rgb(5,99,193);text-decoration:underline" target=3D"_blank">ht=
tps://spanglerwoodbirds.com</a></div></div></div></blockquote></div><br></d=
iv></div></blockquote></div></div></div></blockquote></div><br></div></div>=
</div></blockquote></div>

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