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Date: Tue, 14 Sep 2021 08:43:41 -0400
From: 'Garry Kessler' via MassLep <masslep...>
Subject: [MassLep] Article: Butterfly reintroduction in Baltic Sea

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Butterflies released in Finland contained parasitic wasps =E2=80=93 with =
more
wasps inside

Introduction of Glanville fritillary leads to emergence of three new=20
species on to Baltic Sea island

A Glanville fritillary.
A Glanville fritillary. This butterfly somehow seems to recover from=20
isolated population crashes, say researchers.Photograph: Peter=20
Eeles/Butterfly Conservati/PA

Patrick Barkham <https://www.theguardian.com/profile/patrickbarkham>
@patrick_barkham <https://www.twitter.com/patrick_barkham>

Tue 14 Sep 2021 06.46 EDT

When caterpillars of a beautiful butterfly were introduced on to the=20
tiny island of Sottunga in the =C3=85land archipelago, scientists hoped to=
=20
study how the emerging butterflies would disperse across the landscape.

But researchers did not realise that their introduction of theGlanville=20
fritillary=20
<https://butterfly-conservation.org/butterflies/glanville-fritillary>(/Meli=
taea=20
cinxia/) led to the emergence of three other species on to the Baltic=20
Sea island, which sprang out of the butterfly like Russian dolls.

Some of the caterpillars contained a parasitic wasp,/Hyposoter=20
horticola/, which bursts from the caterpillar before it can pupate and=20
become a butterfly.

Living inside some of these small wasps was another even tinier, rarer=20
parasite, a =E2=80=9Chyperparasitoid=E2=80=9D wasp known as/Mesochorus cf. =
stigmaticus/.=20
It kills the parasitic wasp around the same time as the wasp kills the=20
caterpillar, and emerges 10 days later from the caterpillar=E2=80=99s carca=
ss.

Also along for the ride was a bacterium that is carried by the female/H.=20
horticola/wasps and transmitted to her offspring. By some unknown=20
mechanism,/Wolbachia pipientis/increases the susceptibility of the=20
parasitic wasp to being taken over by the tiny parasitic wasp/M.=20
stigmaticus/, which can only live on the/H. horticola/wasp.

Perhaps most surprisingly, given that small island populations are=20
notoriously vulnerable to extinction, all four species are still=20
surviving on the 27 sq km island 30 years after the original introduction.

A study <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.16065?af=3DR>of=20
the genetics of the parasitic wasp and its bacterium has shown this=20
survival to be all the more remarkable because the Glanville fritillary=20
has experienced several population crashes on Sottunga.

=E2=80=9CThe Glanville fritillary population has had amazing crashes at tim=
es=20
over the last 30 years and we were expecting there to be very low=20
genetic diversity in the years following those crashes,=E2=80=9D saidDr Ann=
e=20
Duplouy <https://researchportal.helsinki.fi/en/persons/anne-duplouy>of=20
the University of Helsinki, and lead author of the study.

=E2=80=9CBut this butterfly somehow seems to recover from isolated populati=
on=20
crashes, and the genetic diversity in =C3=85land is still impressively high=
,=20
despite all the bottlenecks the butterfly has been through.=E2=80=9D

The parasites may have survived on the island by virtue of their=20
superior flying skills. Unlike many butterflies, the Glanville=20
fritillary is a poor disperser and individuals living naturally on=20
neighbouring islands cannot fly more than 7km (4.3 miles) across open=20
water to Sottunga to top up this population.

But the tiny parasitic wasp/H. horticola/appears to have been able to=20
fly or at least to be lifted by strong winds to move between islands=20
onthe =C3=85land archipelago <https://www.visitaland.com/en>, an autonomous=
=20
region of Finland where Swedish is the official language.

Since/H. horticola/was accidentally introduced on to Sottunga, the wasp=20
has been discovered on other islands to the north, where it was=20
previously not recorded. These individuals show similar genotypes to=20
Sottunga, suggesting they originated from the wasps accidentally=20
introduced to that island.

Duplouy said the study, which ispublished in Molecular Ecology=20
<https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.16065?af=3DR>, could=20
serve as a warning to projects seeking to reintroduce or restore rare=20
species, showing how easily other organisms =E2=80=93 or pathogens =E2=80=
=93 can be=20
inadvertently released alongside the target species.

=E2=80=9CThe reintroduction of endangered species comes from the heart, a g=
ood=20
place, but we have a lot to learn about the species we are reintroducing=20
and the habitat where we want to reintroduce them before we do so,=E2=80=9D=
she=20
said.

The bacterium,/Wolbachia pipientis/, is found in insects worldwide (in=20
at least 40% of all species) but if accidentally introduced to=20
uninfected populations, it could reduce the breeding success of species=20
that conservationists are trying to help.

While the Glanville fritillaries and its associated parasitoids have=20
survived against the odds on Sottunga, Duplouy said population crashes =E2=
=80=93=20
which are usually caused by drought on the island =E2=80=93 also showed the=
=20
dangers of the climate crisis.

More droughts could cause more regular crashes and a loss of genetic=20
diversity from which the butterfly and its dependant species could be=20
unable to bounce back.

Researchers count the Glanville populations every September, when its=20
gregarious caterpillars are highly visible in communal =E2=80=9Cwebs=E2=80=
=9D.

=E2=80=9CThe butterflies are still there but at the moment the conditions a=
re=20
really tough because of drought,=E2=80=9D Duplouy said. =E2=80=9CEvery year=
we are=20
really worried it is not going to be there but at the moment we still=20
have it.=E2=80=9D


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released in Finland contained parasitic wasps =E2=80=93 with mo=
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wasps inside</h1>
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<p style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px 0px 8px; padding:
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duction
of Glanville fritillary leads to emergence of three new
species on to Baltic Sea island</p>
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<figure id=3D"67ac97a6-3d9d-4f16-bf20-3e39bbcf463b"
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media=3D"(-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 1.25),
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style=3D"box-sizing: inherit;"><img alt=3D"A Glanville
fritillary."
src=3D"https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/7216ac94a39387811f590df37479cf49d7f03=
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style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px 0px 6px;
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color: rgb(118, 118, 118);"><span class=3D"dcr-12zcz0k"
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svg></span><span
class=3D"dcr-19x4pdv" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit;
margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font: inherit;
vertical-align: baseline;">A Glanville fritillary.
This butterfly somehow seems to recover from isolated
population crashes, say researchers.</span><span>=C2=A0</=
span>Photograph:
Peter Eeles/Butterfly Conservati/PA</figcaption></span></fi=
gure>
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EDT</label></div>
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<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin:
0px 0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style:
normal; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures;
font-variant-caps: normal; font-variant-numeric: inherit;
font-variant-east-asian: inherit; font-weight: 400;
font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height:
1.5; font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian
Text Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline; color: rgb(18, 18, 18); letter-spacing: normal;
orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2;
word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;
background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);
text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style:
initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">When
caterpillars of a beautiful butterfly were introduced on
to the tiny island of Sottunga in the =C3=85land archipelago,
scientists hoped to study how the emerging butterflies
would disperse across the landscape.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin:
0px 0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style:
normal; font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures;
font-variant-caps: normal; font-variant-numeric: inherit;
font-variant-east-asian: inherit; font-weight: 400;
font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height:
1.5; font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian
Text Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline; color: rgb(18, 18, 18); letter-spacing: normal;
orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2;
word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;
background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);
text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style:
initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">But researchers
did not realise that their introduction of the<span>=C2=A0</s=
pan><a
href=3D"https://butterfly-conservation.org/butterflies/glanville-fritillary=
"
data-link-name=3D"in body link" style=3D"box-sizing:
inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 0px
0px 1px; border-top-style: initial; border-right-style:
initial; border-bottom-style: solid; border-left-style:
initial; border-top-color: initial; border-right-color:
initial; border-bottom-color: rgb(220, 220, 220);
border-left-color: initial; border-image: initial; font:
inherit; vertical-align: baseline; text-decoration:
none; color: rgb(199, 0, 0);">Glanville fritillary</a><span=
>=C2=A0</span>(<em
style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;
border: 0px; font-style: italic; font-variant: inherit;
font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size:
inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit;
vertical-align: baseline;">Melitaea cinxia</em>) led to
the emergence of three other species on to the Baltic Sea
island, which sprang out of the butterfly like Russian
dolls.<br>
</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
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0px; font: inherit; vertical-align: baseline; outline: 0px;">
<div class=3D"article-body-commercial-selector
article-body-viewer-selector dcr-bjn8wh" style=3D"box-sizing:
inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font:
inherit; vertical-align: baseline; position: relative;">
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">Some of the caterpillars contained a parasitic
wasp,<span>=C2=A0</span><em style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margi=
n:
0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: italic;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit;
font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">Hyposoter
horticola</em>, which bursts from the caterpillar before
it can pupate and become a butterfly.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">Living inside some of these small wasps was
another even tinier, rarer parasite, a =E2=80=9Chyperparasitoid=
=E2=80=9D
wasp known as<em style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px;
padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: italic;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: inherit; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit;
font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;"><span>=C2=A0=
</span>Mesochorus
cf. stigmaticus</em>. It kills the parasitic wasp around
the same time as the wasp kills the caterpillar, and emerges
10 days later from the caterpillar=E2=80=99s carcass.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">Also along for the ride was a bacterium that is
carried by the female<span>=C2=A0</span><em style=3D"box-sizing=
:
inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px;
font-style: italic; font-variant: inherit; font-weight:
inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit;
line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit;
vertical-align: baseline;">H. horticola</em><span>=C2=A0</spa=
n>wasps
and transmitted to her offspring. By some unknown mechanism,<sp=
an>=C2=A0</span><em
style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;
border: 0px; font-style: italic; font-variant: inherit;
font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size:
inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit;
vertical-align: baseline;">Wolbachia pipientis<span>=C2=A0</s=
pan></em>increases
the susceptibility of the parasitic wasp to being taken over
by the tiny parasitic wasp<span>=C2=A0</span><em
style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;
border: 0px; font-style: italic; font-variant: inherit;
font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size:
inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit;
vertical-align: baseline;">M. stigmaticus</em>, which can
only live on the<span>=C2=A0</span><em style=3D"box-sizing:
inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px;
font-style: italic; font-variant: inherit; font-weight:
inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit;
line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit;
vertical-align: baseline;">H. horticola</em><span>=C2=A0</spa=
n>wasp.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">Perhaps most surprisingly, given that small
island populations are notoriously vulnerable to extinction,
all four species are still surviving on the 27 sq km island
30 years after the original introduction.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;"><a
href=3D"https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.16065=
?af=3DR"
data-link-name=3D"in body link" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit;
margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 0px 0px 1px;
border-top-style: initial; border-right-style: initial;
border-bottom-style: solid; border-left-style: initial;
border-top-color: initial; border-right-color: initial;
border-bottom-color: rgb(220, 220, 220);
border-left-color: initial; border-image: initial; font:
inherit; vertical-align: baseline; text-decoration: none;
color: rgb(199, 0, 0);">A study</a><span>=C2=A0</span>of the
genetics of the parasitic wasp and its bacterium has shown
this survival to be all the more remarkable because the
Glanville fritillary has experienced several population
crashes on Sottunga.</p>
<figure id=3D"af331897-1648-44e0-809c-f2082f19b729"
class=3D"dcr-10khgmf" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 12p=
x
0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font: inherit;
vertical-align: baseline; display: block;">
<figure id=3D"af331897-1648-44e0-809c-f2082f19b729"
class=3D"element-interactive element interactive css-6bibdn"
data-alt=3D"Sottunga locator"
data-cypress=3D"interactive-element-Sottunga%20locator"
style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;
border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit;
font-weight: 400; font-stretch: inherit; font-size:
1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5; font-family:
GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text Egyptian
Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align: baseline;
display: block; background-color: transparent; min-height:
auto; position: relative;"></figure>
</figure>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">=E2=80=9CThe Glanville fritillary population has had
amazing crashes at times over the last 30 years and we were
expecting there to be very low genetic diversity in the
years following those crashes,=E2=80=9D said<span>=C2=A0</span>=
<a
href=3D"https://researchportal.helsinki.fi/en/persons/anne-du=
plouy"
data-link-name=3D"in body link" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit;
margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 0px 0px 1px;
border-top-style: initial; border-right-style: initial;
border-bottom-style: solid; border-left-style: initial;
border-top-color: initial; border-right-color: initial;
border-bottom-color: rgb(220, 220, 220);
border-left-color: initial; border-image: initial; font:
inherit; vertical-align: baseline; text-decoration: none;
color: rgb(199, 0, 0);">Dr Anne Duplouy</a><span>=C2=A0</span=
>of
the University of Helsinki, and lead author of the study.<br>
</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">=E2=80=9CBut this butterfly somehow seems to recover=
from
isolated population crashes, and the genetic diversity in
=C3=85land is still impressively high, despite all the
bottlenecks the butterfly has been through.=E2=80=9D</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">The parasites may have survived on the island by
virtue of their superior flying skills. Unlike many
butterflies, the Glanville fritillary is a poor disperser
and individuals living naturally on neighbouring islands
cannot fly more than 7km (4.3 miles) across open water to
Sottunga to top up this population.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">But the tiny parasitic wasp<span>=C2=A0</span><em
style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;
border: 0px; font-style: italic; font-variant: inherit;
font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size:
inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit;
vertical-align: baseline;">H. horticola</em><span>=C2=A0</spa=
n>appears
to have been able to fly or at least to be lifted by strong
winds to move between islands on<span>=C2=A0</span><a
href=3D"https://www.visitaland.com/en" data-link-name=3D"in
body link" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px;
padding: 0px; border-width: 0px 0px 1px; border-top-style:
initial; border-right-style: initial; border-bottom-style:
solid; border-left-style: initial; border-top-color:
initial; border-right-color: initial; border-bottom-color:
rgb(220, 220, 220); border-left-color: initial;
border-image: initial; font: inherit; vertical-align:
baseline; text-decoration: none; color: rgb(199, 0, 0);">the
=C3=85land archipelago</a>, an autonomous region of Finland
where Swedish is the official language.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">Since<span>=C2=A0</span><em style=3D"box-sizing:
inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px;
font-style: italic; font-variant: inherit; font-weight:
inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit;
line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit;
vertical-align: baseline;">H. horticola</em><span>=C2=A0</spa=
n>was
accidentally introduced on to Sottunga, the wasp has been
discovered on other islands to the north, where it was
previously not recorded. These individuals show similar
genotypes to Sottunga, suggesting they originated from the
wasps accidentally introduced to that island.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">Duplouy said the study, which is<span>=C2=A0</span><=
a
href=3D"https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.16065?af=3DR"
data-link-name=3D"in body link" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit;
margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-width: 0px 0px 1px;
border-top-style: initial; border-right-style: initial;
border-bottom-style: solid; border-left-style: initial;
border-top-color: initial; border-right-color: initial;
border-bottom-color: rgb(220, 220, 220);
border-left-color: initial; border-image: initial; font:
inherit; vertical-align: baseline; text-decoration: none;
color: rgb(199, 0, 0);">published in Molecular Ecology</a>,
could serve as a warning to projects seeking to reintroduce
or restore rare species, showing how easily other organisms
=E2=80=93 or pathogens =E2=80=93 can be inadvertently released =
alongside the
target species.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">=E2=80=9CThe reintroduction of endangered species co=
mes
from the heart, a good place, but we have a lot to learn
about the species we are reintroducing and the habitat where
we want to reintroduce them before we do so,=E2=80=9D she said.=
</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">The bacterium,<span>=C2=A0</span><em
style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;
border: 0px; font-style: italic; font-variant: inherit;
font-weight: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size:
inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit;
vertical-align: baseline;">Wolbachia pipientis</em>, is
found in insects worldwide (in at least 40% of all species)
but if accidentally introduced to uninfected populations, it
could reduce the breeding success of species that
conservationists are trying to help.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">While the Glanville fritillaries and its
associated parasitoids have survived against the odds on
Sottunga, Duplouy said population crashes =E2=80=93 which are
usually caused by drought on the island =E2=80=93 also showed t=
he
dangers of the climate crisis.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">More droughts could cause more regular crashes
and a loss of genetic diversity from which the butterfly and
its dependant species could be unable to bounce back.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">Researchers count the Glanville populations every
September, when its gregarious caterpillars are highly
visible in communal =E2=80=9Cwebs=E2=80=9D.</p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;">=E2=80=9CThe butterflies are still there but at the
moment the conditions are really tough because of drought,=E2=
=80=9D
Duplouy said. =E2=80=9CEvery year we are really worried it is n=
ot
going to be there but at the moment we still have it.=E2=80=9D<=
/p>
<p class=3D"dcr-s23rjr" style=3D"box-sizing: inherit; margin: 0px
0px 1rem; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit;
font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 400; font-stretch:
inherit; font-size: 1.0625rem; line-height: 1.5;
font-family: GuardianTextEgyptian, &quot;Guardian Text
Egyptian Web&quot;, Georgia, serif; vertical-align:
baseline;"><br>
</p>
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