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Date: Sat, 23 Apr 2022 16:30:28 -0400
From: Jeremy Coleman <jcolemanarch...>
Subject: Re: [MassLep] The difference between Spring Azure and spring form Summer Azure

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Thanks Harry Pavulaan for this timely and important report. It is much
appreciated!

Jeremy Coleman
Shelburne Falls

On Sat, Apr 23, 2022 at 12:37 PM pavulaan via MassLep <
<masslep...> wrote:

> Spring greetings:
>
> I=E2=80=99m pleased to announce publication of The Taxonomic Report Vol. =
10, No.
> 2. This is a TTR =E2=80=98Notes on Eastern North American Lepidoptera=E2=
=80=99 issue with
> three reports. I am forwarding this to Masslep because I've seen more
> frequent images of what appear to be spring form Summer Azures appearing =
in
> New England. Hopefully, the attached paper will help folks distinguish
> Summer Azures flying among Spring Azures. In many areas of the Virginia
> and Maryland Piedmont, Spring Azures (C. ladon) have disappeared due to
> demise of their host, Flowering Dogwood, due to Dogwood Anthracnose. The
> Summer Azure (C. neglecta) has developed a full spring brood and has
> essentially become our "Spring Azure", thus replacing the original Spring
> Azure in its ecological niche.
>
>
> 1. =E2=80=98*Celastrina ladon* and *C. neglecta* are distinct species
> differentiated primarily by a diagnostic wing scale structure, voltini=
sm,
> and host tolerance of *Cornus florida*=E2=80=99 by Harry Pavulaan.
>
>
> While most people in the realm of butterfly study/observation now
> recognize the Spring (*C. ladon*) and Summer (*C. neglecta*) Azures as
> distinct species, there is still confusion over how to distinguish them
> from each other. There are also =E2=80=9Choldouts=E2=80=9D that, despite=
several papers on
> the topic and most field guides now separating these as full species =E2=
=80=93
> still insist that the differences are merely individual variation and nee=
d
> more =E2=80=9Cproof=E2=80=9D to understand the clear differences. This p=
aper attempts, in
> the clearest terms, to present these obvious differences. An especial
> thanks to members of MDLepsOdes who provided a great many =E2=80=9CSpring=
=E2=80=9D Azure
> images (most of which happened to be Summer Azures). It was difficult
> deciding which =E2=80=9Clive=E2=80=9D images to use in the paper.
>
> One word of caution for Massachusetts butterfliers: Spring Azures (C.
> ladon) take on the appearance of C. lucia (Northern Spring Azure) in
> southern New England. They frequently develop both dark patches and dark
> margins on the underside of the hindwings, as well as just showing the
> spotted form (which is illustrated in the attached paper). However, it i=
s
> the male forewing upperside that distinguishes the Spring Azure. When on=
e
> encounters a spring form Summer Azure (C. neglecta), these are
> characterized by their very white underside and reduced spot pattern. Th=
ey
> will fly among the Spring Azures. Not to be confused with the Cherry Gal=
l
> Azure (C. serotina), that appears similar to both Spring and Summer
> Azures, but emerges later - in May.
>
> DNA work has been underway on all North American Azures and will be
> published sometime soon. Regardless of similar appearances, the study
> supports separating these as full species.
>
>
> 1. =E2=80=98A rare case of mosaic gynandromorphism in the Zabulon Skip=
per (*Lon
> zabulon*)=E2=80=99 by Annette Allor.
>
>
> This was a fascinating discovery last year by Annette Allor. It is a rar=
e
> case of mixed male/female features in a Skipper butterfly, and may be the
> only published case of this happening in North America among the Skippers=
,
> though there is one case of bilateral gynandromorphism that I am aware of=
.
> This report also highlights the value of photographic documentation of
> natural history experiences. My thanks to Annette for bringing this to m=
y
> attention!
>
>
> 1. =E2=80=98Rhode Island, USA Fall Lepidoptera Survey 2021=E2=80=99 by=
Harry Pavulaan
> (coordinator)=E2=80=99.
>
>
> While butterfly counts abound, mainly around July 4th, an attempt was
> made to document lepidoptera activity in the Fall of 2021, in Rhode
> Island. The survey period focused on Sept. 18-Oct. 10, a time during whi=
ch
> lepidopteran migratory activity is at a peak, and fall broods are in full
> flight. A complete list from several direct participants is compiled, an=
d
> additional reports from iNaturalist and the R.I. Butterflies and Moths
> Facebook group are included.
>
> Thanks to all who have provided support to TILS!
>
> Harry Pavulaan
>
> Sent from Mail <https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=3D550986> for
> Windows
>
>
> --
> You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups
> "MassLep" group.
> To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an
> email to masslep+<unsubscribe...>
> To view this discussion on the web visit
> https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/424788534.347689.1650731858666%=
40mail.yahoo.com
> <https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/424788534.347689.1650731858666=
%40mail.yahoo.com?utm_medium=3Demail&utm_source=3Dfooter>
> .
>

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<div dir=3D"ltr"><div class=3D"gmail_default" style=3D"font-size:small">Tha=
nks=20
<font size=3D"2">Harry Pavulaan for this timely and important report. It is=
much appreciated!</font></div><div class=3D"gmail_default" style=3D"font-s=
ize:small"><font size=3D"2"><br></font></div><div class=3D"gmail_default" s=
tyle=3D"font-size:small"><font size=3D"2">Jeremy Coleman</font></div><div c=
lass=3D"gmail_default" style=3D"font-size:small"><font size=3D"2">Shelburne=
Falls</font></div></div><br><div class=3D"gmail_quote"><div dir=3D"ltr" cl=
ass=3D"gmail_attr">On Sat, Apr 23, 2022 at 12:37 PM pavulaan via MassLep &l=
t;<a href=3D"mailto:<masslep...>"><masslep...></a>&=
gt; wrote:<br></div><blockquote class=3D"gmail_quote" style=3D"margin:0px 0=
px 0px 0.8ex;border-left:1px solid rgb(204,204,204);padding-left:1ex">
<div style=3D"color:black;font:10pt arial">Spring greetings:<br>
<br>

<div style=3D"font-family:arial,helvetica;font-size:10pt;color:black"><font=
size=3D"2">
<div id=3D"gmail-m_6918848259305000617yiv2197023889">
<div>
<div>
<div>I=E2=80=99m pleased to announce publication of The Taxonomic Report Vo=
l. 10, No. 2.=C2=A0 This is a TTR =E2=80=98Notes on Eastern North American =
Lepidoptera=E2=80=99 issue with three reports.=C2=A0 I am forwarding this t=
o Masslep because I&#39;ve seen more frequent images of what appear to be s=
pring form Summer Azures appearing in New England.=C2=A0 Hopefully, the att=
ached paper will help folks distinguish Summer Azures flying among Spring A=
zures.=C2=A0 In many areas of the Virginia and Maryland Piedmont, Spring Az=
ures (<span style=3D"font-style:italic">C. ladon</span>) have disappeared d=
ue to demise of their host, Flowering Dogwood, due to Dogwood Anthracnose.=
=C2=A0 The Summer Azure (<span style=3D"font-style:italic">C. neglecta</spa=
n>) has developed a full spring brood and has essentially become our &quot;=
Spring Azure&quot;, thus replacing the original Spring Azure in its ecologi=
cal niche.</div>


<div> =C2=A0</div>
=20
<ol style=3D"margin-top:0in" type=3D"1" start=3D"1">
<li>=E2=80=98<i>Celastrina ladon</i> and
<i>C. neglecta</i> are distinct species differentiated primarily by a diagn=
ostic wing scale structure, voltinism, and host tolerance of
<i>Cornus florida</i>=E2=80=99 by Harry Pavulaan.</li></ol>

<div> =C2=A0</div>
=20

<div>While most people in the realm of butterfly study/observation now reco=
gnize the Spring (<i>C. ladon</i>) and Summer (<i>C. neglecta</i>) Azures a=
s distinct species, there is still confusion over how to distinguish them f=
rom each other.=C2=A0
There are also =E2=80=9Choldouts=E2=80=9D that, despite several papers on =
the topic and most field guides now separating these as full species =E2=80=
=93 still insist that the differences are merely individual variation and n=
eed more =E2=80=9Cproof=E2=80=9D to understand the clear differences.=C2=A0
This paper attempts, in the clearest terms, to present these obvious diffe=
rences.=C2=A0 An especial thanks to members of MDLepsOdes who provided a gr=
eat many =E2=80=9CSpring=E2=80=9D Azure images (most of which happened to b=
e Summer Azures).=C2=A0 It was difficult deciding which =E2=80=9Clive=E2=80=
=9D
images to use in the paper.</div>

<div><br>
</div>

<div>One word of caution for Massachusetts butterfliers:=C2=A0 Spring Azure=
s (<span style=3D"font-style:italic">C. ladon</span>) take on the appearanc=
e of <span style=3D"font-style:italic">C. lucia</span> (Northern Spring Azu=
re) in southern New England.=C2=A0 They frequently develop both dark patche=
s and dark margins on the underside of the hindwings, as well as just showi=
ng the spotted form (which is illustrated in the attached paper).=C2=A0 How=
ever, it is the male forewing upperside that distinguishes the Spring Azure=
.=C2=A0 When one encounters a spring form Summer Azure (<span style=3D"font=
-style:italic">C. neglecta</span>), these are characterized by their very w=
hite underside and reduced spot pattern.=C2=A0 They will fly among the Spri=
ng Azures.=C2=A0 Not to be confused with the Cherry Gall Azure (<span style=
=3D"font-style:italic">C. serotina</span>), that appears similar to both Sp=
ring and Summer Azures, but emerges later - in May.=C2=A0=C2=A0</div>

<div><br>
</div>

<div>DNA work has been underway on all North American Azures and will be pu=
blished sometime soon.=C2=A0 Regardless of similar appearances, the study s=
upports separating these as full species.</div>


<div> =C2=A0</div>
=20
<ol style=3D"margin-top:0in" type=3D"1" start=3D"2">
<li>=E2=80=98A rare case of mosaic gynandromorphism in the Zabulon Skipper =
(<i>Lon zabulon</i>)=E2=80=99 by Annette Allor.</li></ol>

<div> =C2=A0</div>
=20

<div>This was a fascinating discovery last year by Annette Allor.=C2=A0 It =
is a rare case of mixed male/female features in a Skipper butterfly, and ma=
y be the only published case of this happening in North America among the S=
kippers, though there
is one case of bilateral gynandromorphism that I am aware of.=C2=A0 This r=
eport also highlights the value of photographic documentation of natural hi=
story experiences.=C2=A0 My thanks to Annette for bringing this to my atten=
tion!</div>


<div> =C2=A0</div>
=20
<ol style=3D"margin-top:0in" type=3D"1" start=3D"3">
<li>=E2=80=98Rhode Island, USA Fall Lepidoptera Survey 2021=E2=80=99 by Har=
ry Pavulaan (coordinator)=E2=80=99.</li></ol>

<div> =C2=A0</div>
=20

<div>While butterfly counts abound, mainly around July 4<sup>th</sup>, an a=
ttempt was made to document lepidoptera activity in the Fall of 2021, in Rh=
ode Island.=C2=A0 The survey period focused on Sept. 18-Oct. 10, a time dur=
ing which lepidopteran
migratory activity is at a peak, and fall broods are in full flight.=C2=A0=
A complete list from several direct participants is compiled, and addition=
al reports from iNaturalist and the R.I. Butterflies and Moths Facebook gro=
up are included.</div>


<div> =C2=A0</div>
=20

<div>Thanks to all who have provided support to TILS!=C2=A0
</div>


<div> =C2=A0</div>
=20

<div>Harry Pavulaan</div>


<div> =C2=A0</div>
=20

<div>Sent from <a rel=3D"nofollow noopener noreferrer" href=3D"https://go.m=
icrosoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=3D550986" target=3D"_blank">
Mail</a> for Windows</div>


<div> =C2=A0</div>
=20
</div>

</div>


</div>
</font></div>
</div>

<p></p>

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</blockquote></div>

<p></p>

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