Jump to :     |    View All Lists    |    FAQ
List: NorWest Leps
Date: Tue, 24 Jan 2023 14:18:33 -0800
From: Neil Bjorklund <nel-de-bearck...>
Subject: Re: [NorWestLeps] Taxonomic change - Anthocharis sara complex

--B_3757414716_2384768163
Content-type: text/plain;
charset="UTF-8"
Content-transfer-encoding: quoted-printable

Thanks for sharing this Jon!=C2=A0 I read the 2022 paper with interest.=C2=
=A0 Then I groaned when I saw Figure 23, the map for the A. sara group.=C2=
=A0 As I read it, it documents A. sara in the northern part of the coast ra=
nge of Oregon, likely flying in sympatry with A. julia, and probably occurs=
throughout the coast range.=C2=A0 Which means lazy amatuer field lepidopte=
rists like me can=E2=80=99t rely solely on a simple geographic forumla to s=
eparate the two species (e.g., =E2=80=9Cif its north of Jackson and Josephi=
ne counties, it A. julia=E2=80=9D). And photos may be of no help in determi=
ning the ID. As the paper states, =E2=80=9CThis is problematic because over=
lap in adult morphological characters of all three species make it challeng=
ing to identify wing traits exclusive to any single species.=E2=80=9D Groan=
.=C2=A0 And then, =E2=80=9CThese similar phenotypes are distributed randoml=
y throughout the sara group taxa and are not regionally correlated except f=
or those which are phenotypically similar and fly in near sympatry=E2=80=A6=
=E2=80=9D=C2=A0 I interpret the latter to mean that one would have to learn=
the wing trait differences of the two species within the areas in which th=
ey fly in sympatry.=C2=A0 Groan.

=20

Someone please let me know if I=E2=80=99m misinterpreting this=E2=80=A6

=20

Thanks,

=20

Neil Bjorklund

www.butterfliesoforegon.com=20

=20

=20

=20

From: <NorWestLeps...> on behalf of JONATHAN PELHAM <zapjammer@comca=
st.net>
Reply-To: <NorWestLeps...>
Date: Tuesday, January 24, 2023 at 12:40 PM
To: <DesertLeps...>
Cc: TILS <TILS...>, desertleps <desertleps...>, norwestleps <=
<norwestleps...>
Subject: [NorWestLeps] Taxonomic change - Anthocharis sara complex

=20

=20

All,=20

=20

To begin, I don=E2=80=99t assume that everyone in this audience has the sam=
e intense interest in butterfly systematics that I do. However, it is plain=
how important it is to Todd Stout, Harry Pavulaan & Steve Kohler, all enga=
ged in preparing regional treatments. Further, Mike Fisher, Jim Brock and K=
en Davenport have long been familiar with issues of butterfly systematics a=
s they prepared their work.=20

=20

Me? I catalogue it all and have a commitment to it=E2=80=99s users. As resu=
lt, I am familiar with what has transpired and amazed at what is upon us cu=
rrently. Apparently, no matter how elusive a definitive systematic arrangem=
ent of butterflies may be, it can be attained. Perhaps I will witness it!=
=20

=20

It may be useful to detail how past taxonomic changes have taken place. It =
gives me pleasure to document one example reflecting the hard work of one o=
f our own - Todd Stout- and the reticence of this cataloguer to make BIG ch=
anges without profound support.=20

=20

In 1986 Geiger & Shapiro published a paper giving electrophoretic evidence =
supporting Anthocharis sara, A.stella and A.julia as =E2=80=9Cdifferentiate=
d at the species level.=E2=80=9D=20

=20

As I recall, this was discussed but not acted upon until Layberry et al tre=
ated all Canadian populations as A.stella in 1998. A year later, Opler doub=
led down, adding a twist, treating A. thoosa as a distinct species as well.=
=20

=20

These publications created difficulties as I prepared the catalogue but I h=
ad a friend (TS) who had published a paper in 2005 treating A.sara and A.st=
ella as distinct species in a rearing study. We talked and he said (somethi=
ng like): JP...I=E2=80=99m crazy for orange-tips and I=E2=80=99m going to f=
igure this one out - but I haven=E2=80=99t yet.=E2=80=9D=20

=20

I deferred from accepting the split in 2008. I eagerly awaited Todd=E2=80=
=99s paper...which arrived in 2018 and I am gratified that Opler et al, 202=
2 supported Todd=E2=80=99s conclusions=20

=20

This took 22 years but I am not citing this as any sort of standard! It is =
only an example.=20

=20

JPPelham=20

=20

=20

Geiger, Hansj=C3=BCrg and Arthur Maurice Shapiro=20

1986 Electrophoretic evidence for speciation within the nominal species Ant=
hocharis sara Lucas (Pieridae). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 25(1=
): 15-24, 2 figs., 4 tbls. {Spring 1986, 1 Oct 1986}=20

=20

Layberry, Ross A., Peter W. Hall and James Donald Lafontaine (plates by Joh=
n T. Fowler)=20

1998 The butterflies of Canada. Toronto, Buffalo & London; University of To=
ronto Press: 280 pp., 32 pls., 294 maps and ill. {1998}=20

=20

=20

Opler, Paul Alexander=20

1999 A field guide to western butterflies. Boston, New York; Houghton Miffl=
in Company, The Peterson Field Guide Series (Amy Bartlett Wright (illustrat=
or): xiv, [2], 540 pp., 44 pls., figs. & maps. {1999}=20

=20

Stout, Todd L.=20

2005 The challenge of raising northern Utah orangetips (Anthocharis stella =
browningi and Anthocharis sara thoosa). Bulletin of the Utah Lepidopterists=
=E2=80=99 Society 12(1): 5-9, 13, 7 figs. {Mar 2005}=20

=20

Scott, James Allen and Michael S. Fisher=20

2008 Anthocharis =E2=80=9Csara=E2=80=9D group, especially in Colorado and v=
icinity (with new research from Todd Stout) (one ssp. coauthored by Norbert=
G. Kondla). Pp. 1-14, pl. 2, in: J. Scott (Ed.), Geographic variation and =
new taxa of western North American butterflies, especially from Colorado. P=
apilio (New Series) 18 {3 Dec 2008}=20

=20

Stout, Todd L.=20

2010 Observations on Anthocharis julia browningi and Anthocharis thoosa tho=
osa including tension zones near Nephi, Juab County, Utah. Taxonomic Report=
of the International Lepidoptera Survey 7(4): 1-12 {31 May 2010}=20

=20

Stout, Todd L.=20

2018 A review of three species-level taxa of the Anthocharis sara complex (=
Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Pierinae: Anthocharidini). Insecta Mundi 0615: 1-38,=
26 figs., 3 tbls.,1 app. {30 Mar 2018}=20

=20

Opler, Paul Alexander, Todd L. Stout, Werner Back, Jing Zhang, Qian Cong. J=
inhui Shen, Jing Zhang and Nicolay Vyacheslav Grishin=20

2022 DNA barcodes reveal different speciation scenarios in the four North A=
merican Anthocharis Boisduval, Rambur, [Dum=C3=A9nil] & Graslin, [1833] (Le=
pidoptera: Pieridae: Pierinae: Anthocharidini) species groups. Zootaxa 5194=
(4): 519=E2=80=93539, 28 figs. {7 Oct 2022}=20





-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-
Groups.io Links: You receive all messages sent to this group.
View/Reply Online (#11202): https://groups.io/g/NorWestLeps/message/11202
Mute This Topic: https://groups.io/mt/96507103/795800
Group Owner: NorWestLeps+<owner...>
Unsubscribe: https://groups.io/g/NorWestLeps/leave/4559582/795800/778100922=
/xyzzy [<lists...>]
-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-=3D-



--B_3757414716_2384768163
Content-type: text/html;
charset="UTF-8"
Content-transfer-encoding: quoted-printable

<html xmlns:v=3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o=3D"urn:schemas-micr=
osoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w=3D"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" =
xmlns:m=3D"http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml" xmlns=3D"http:=
//www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"><head><meta http-equiv=3DContent-Type content=
=3D"text/html; charset=3Dutf-8"><meta name=3DGenerator content=3D"Microsoft=
Word 15 (filtered medium)"><!--[if !mso]><style>v\:* {behavior:url(#defaul=
t#VML);}
o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
.shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
</style><![endif]--><style><!--
/* Font Definitions */
@font-face
{font-family:Helvetica;
panose-1:0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0;}
@font-face
{font-family:"Cambria Math";
panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4;}
@font-face
{font-family:Calibri;
panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4;}
/* Style Definitions */
p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal
{margin:0in;
font-size:11.0pt;
font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;}
a:link, span.MsoHyperlink
{mso-style-priority:99;
color:blue;
text-decoration:underline;}
span.EmailStyle21
{mso-style-type:personal-reply;
font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
color:windowtext;}
.MsoChpDefault
{mso-style-type:export-only;
font-size:10.0pt;}
@page WordSection1
{size:8.5in 11.0in;
margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in;}
div.WordSection1
{page:WordSection1;}
--></style><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
<o:shapedefaults v:ext=3D"edit" spidmax=3D"1026" />
</xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
<o:shapelayout v:ext=3D"edit">
<o:idmap v:ext=3D"edit" data=3D"1" />
</o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--></head><body lang=3DEN-US link=3Dblue vli=
nk=3Dpurple style=3D'word-wrap:break-word'><div class=3DWordSection1><p cla=
ss=3DMsoNormal>Thanks for sharing this Jon!=C2=A0 I read the 2022 paper wit=
h interest.=C2=A0 Then I groaned when I saw Figure 23, the map for the <i>A=
. sara</i> group.=C2=A0 As I read it, it documents <i>A. sara</i> in the no=
rthern part of the coast range of Oregon, likely flying in sympatry with <i=
>A. julia, and probably occurs throughout the coast range.=C2=A0 </i>Which =
means lazy amatuer field lepidopterists like me can=E2=80=99t rely solely o=
n a simple geographic forumla to separate the two species (e.g., =E2=80=9Ci=
f its north of Jackson and Josephine counties, it <i>A. julia</i>=E2=80=9D)=
. And photos may be of no help in determining the ID. As the paper states, =
=E2=80=9CThis is problematic because overlap in adult morphological charact=
ers of all three species make it challenging to identify wing traits exclus=
ive to any single species.=E2=80=9D Groan.=C2=A0 And then, =E2=80=9CThese s=
imilar phenotypes are distributed randomly throughout the sara group taxa a=
nd are not regionally correlated except for those which are phenotypically =
similar and fly in near sympatry=E2=80=A6=E2=80=9D=C2=A0 I interpret the la=
tter to mean that one would have to learn the wing trait differences of the=
two species <i>within the areas in which they fly in sympatry</i>.=C2=A0 G=
roan.<o:p></o:p></p><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p><p class=3DMs=
oNormal>Someone please let me know if I=E2=80=99m misinterpreting this=E2=
=80=A6<o:p></o:p></p><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p><p class=3DM=
soNormal>Thanks,<o:p></o:p></p><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p><p=
class=3DMsoNormal>Neil Bjorklund<o:p></o:p></p><p class=3DMsoNormal><a hre=
f=3D"http://www.butterfliesoforegon.com">www.butterfliesoforegon.com</a> <o=
:p></o:p></p><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p><p class=3DMsoNormal=
><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p><div style=
=3D'border:none;border-top:solid #B5C4DF 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 0in 0in 0in'><=
p class=3DMsoNormal><b><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>From: <=
/span></b><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>&lt;NorWestLeps@grou=
ps.io&gt; on behalf of JONATHAN PELHAM &lt;<zapjammer...>&gt;<br><b>=
Reply-To: </b>&lt;<NorWestLeps...>&gt;<br><b>Date: </b>Tuesday, Januar=
y 24, 2023 at 12:40 PM<br><b>To: </b>&lt;<DesertLeps...>&gt=
;<br><b>Cc: </b>TILS &lt;<TILS...>&gt;, desertleps &lt;desertleps@grou=
ps.io&gt;, norwestleps &lt;<norwestleps...>&gt;<br><b>Subject: </b>[No=
rWestLeps] Taxonomic change - Anthocharis sara complex<o:p></o:p></span></p=
></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=
=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal>All, <o:p=
></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div>=
<p class=3DMsoNormal>To begin, I don=E2=80=99t assume that everyone in this=
audience has the same intense interest in butterfly systematics that I do.=
However, it is plain how important it is to Todd Stout, Harry Pavulaan &am=
p; Steve Kohler, all engaged in preparing regional treatments. Further, Mik=
e Fisher, Jim Brock and Ken Davenport have long been familiar with issues o=
f butterfly systematics as they prepared their work. <o:p></o:p></p></div><=
div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNorm=
al>Me? I catalogue it all and have a commitment to it=E2=80=99s users. As r=
esult, I am familiar with what has transpired and amazed at what is upon us=
currently. Apparently, no matter how elusive a definitive systematic arran=
gement of butterflies may be, it can be attained. Perhaps I will witness it=
! <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div=
><div><p class=3DMsoNormal>It may be useful to detail how past taxonomic ch=
anges have taken place. It gives me pleasure to document one example reflec=
ting the hard work of one of our own - Todd Stout- and the reticence of thi=
s cataloguer to make BIG changes without profound support. <o:p></o:p></p><=
/div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DM=
soNormal>In 1986 Geiger &amp; Shapiro published a paper giving electrophore=
tic evidence supporting Anthocharis sara, A.stella and A.julia as =E2=80=9C=
differentiated at the species level.=E2=80=9D <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p =
class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal>As I=
recall, this was discussed but not acted upon until Layberry et al treated=
all Canadian populations as A.stella in 1998. A year later, Opler doubled =
down, adding a twist, treating A. thoosa as a distinct species as well. <o:=
p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div=
><p class=3DMsoNormal>These publications created difficulties as I prepared=
the catalogue but I had a friend (TS) who had published a paper in 2005 tr=
eating A.sara and A.stella as distinct species in a rearing study. We talke=
d and he said (something like): JP...I=E2=80=99m crazy for orange-tips and =
I=E2=80=99m going to figure this one out - but I haven=E2=80=99t yet.=E2=80=
=9D <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></d=
iv><div><p class=3DMsoNormal>I deferred from accepting the split in 2008. I=
eagerly awaited Todd=E2=80=99s paper...which arrived in 2018 and I am grat=
ified that Opler et al, 2022 supported Todd=E2=80=99s conclusions <o:p></o:=
p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p cl=
ass=3DMsoNormal>This took 22 years but I am not citing this as any sort of =
standard! It is only an example. <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNo=
rmal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal>JPPelham <o:p></o=
:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p c=
lass=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><stro=
ng><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Geiger, Hansj=C3=BCrg a=
nd Arthur Maurice Shapiro</span></strong> <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p clas=
s=3DMsoNormal>1986 Electrophoretic evidence for speciation within the nomin=
al species <em><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Anthocharis=
sara</span></em> Lucas (Pieridae). <em><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri=
",sans-serif'>Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 25(1): 15-24, 2 figs.,=
4 tbls. {Spring 1986, 1 Oct 1986}</span></em> <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p=
class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><st=
rong><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Layberry, Ross A., Pe=
ter W. Hall and James Donald Lafontaine</span></strong> (plates by John T. =
Fowler) <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal>1998 <em><span style=
=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>The butterflies of Canada</span></em>=
. Toronto, Buffalo &amp; London; University of Toronto Press: 280 pp., 32 p=
ls., 294 maps and ill. {1998} <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNorma=
l><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p=
></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><strong><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibr=
i",sans-serif'>Opler, Paul Alexander</span></strong> <o:p></o:p></p></div><=
div><p class=3DMsoNormal>1999 <em><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans=
-serif'>A field guide to western butterflies</span></em>. Boston, New York;=
Houghton Mifflin Company, The Peterson Field Guide Series (Amy Bartlett Wr=
ight (illustrator): xiv, [2], 540 pp., 44 pls., figs. &amp; maps. {1999} <o=
:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><di=
v><p class=3DMsoNormal><strong><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-se=
rif'>Stout, Todd L.</span></strong> <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMs=
oNormal>2005 The challenge of raising northern Utah orangetips (<em><span s=
tyle=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Anthocharis stella browningi</spa=
n></em> and <em><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Anthochari=
s sara thoosa</span></em>). <em><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-s=
erif'>Bulletin of the Utah Lepidopterists=E2=80=99 Society 12(1): 5-9, 13, =
7 figs. {Mar 2005}</span></em> <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNorm=
al><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;color:#333333'><o:=
p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><strong><span styl=
e=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Scott, James Allen and Michael S. Fi=
sher</span></strong> <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal>2008 <e=
m><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Anthocharis</span></em> =
=E2=80=9C<em><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>sara</span></=
em>=E2=80=9D group, especially in Colorado and vicinity (with new research =
from Todd Stout) (one ssp. coauthored by Norbert G. Kondla). Pp. 1-14, pl. =
2, in: J. Scott (Ed.), Geographic variation and new taxa of western North A=
merican butterflies, especially from Colorado. <em><span style=3D'font-fami=
ly:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Papilio (New Series) 18 {3 Dec 2008}</span></em> <=
o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><d=
iv><p class=3DMsoNormal><strong><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-s=
erif'>Stout, Todd L.</span></strong> <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DM=
soNormal>2010 Observations on <em><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans=
-serif'>Anthocharis julia browningi</span></em> and <em><span style=3D'font=
-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Anthocharis thoosa thoosa</span></em> includi=
ng tension zones near Nephi, Juab County, Utah. <em><span style=3D'font-fam=
ily:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera=
Survey 7(4): 1-12 {31 May 2010}</span></em> <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p c=
lass=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><stro=
ng><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Stout, Todd L.</span></=
strong> <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal>2018 A review of thr=
ee species-level taxa of the <em><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-=
serif'>Anthocharis sara</span></em> complex (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Pierina=
e: Anthocharidini). <em><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>In=
secta Mundi 0615: 1-38, 26 figs., 3 tbls.,1 app. {30 Mar 2018}</span></em> =
<o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p></div><=
div><p class=3DMsoNormal><strong><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",sans-=
serif'>Opler, Paul Alexander, Todd L. Stout, Werner Back, Jing Zhang, Qian =
Cong. Jinhui Shen, Jing Zhang and Nicolay Vyacheslav Grishin</span></strong=
> <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal>2022 DNA barcodes reveal d=
ifferent speciation scenarios in the four North American <em><span style=3D=
'font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif'>Anthocharis</span></em> Boisduval, Rambu=
r, [Dum=C3=A9nil] &amp; Graslin, [1833] (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Pierinae: A=
nthocharidini) species groups. <em><span style=3D'font-family:"Calibri",san=
s-serif'>Zootaxa 5194(4): 519=E2=80=93539, 28 figs. {7 Oct 2022}</span></em=
> <o:p></o:p></p></div><div><p class=3DMsoNormal></o:p></span></p></div></d=
iv></body></html>


<div width=3D"1" style=3D"color:white;clear:both">_._,_._,_</div>
<hr>


Groups.io Links:<p>


=20
You receive all messages sent to this group.
=20
=20


<p>
<a target=3D"_blank" href=3D"https://groups.io/g/NorWestLeps/message/11202"=
>View/Reply Online (#11202)</a> |


<a target=3D"_blank" href=3D"mailto:<NorWestLeps...>?subject=3DRe:%2=
0Re%3A%20%5BNorWestLeps%5D%20Taxonomic%20change%20-%20Anthocharis%20sara%20=
complex">Reply To Group</a>
=20
| <a target=3D"_blank" href=3D"mailto:<nel-de-bearck...>?subject=
=3DPrivate:%20Re:%20Re%3A%20%5BNorWestLeps%5D%20Taxonomic%20change%20-%20An=
thocharis%20sara%20complex">Reply To Sender</a>
=20

|

<a target=3D"_blank" href=3D"https://groups.io/mt/96507103/795800">Mute T=
his Topic</a>

| <a href=3D"https://groups.io/g/NorWestLeps/post">New Topic</a><br>




<a href=3D"https://groups.io/g/NorWestLeps/editsub/795800">Your Subscriptio=
n</a> |
<a href=3D"mailto:NorWestLeps+<owner...>">Contact Group Owner</a> |

<a href=3D"https://groups.io/g/NorWestLeps/leave/4559582/795800/778100922/x=
yzzy">Unsubscribe</a>

[<lists...>]<br>
<div width=3D"1" style=3D"color:white;clear:both">_._,_._,_</div>


--B_3757414716_2384768163--