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List: MassLep
Date: Fri, 26 Apr 2024 20:05:37 +0000 (UTC)
From: '<pavulaan...>' via MassLep <masslep...>
Subject: Re: [MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what are they?

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Steve, all:
Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who rely solely on Butt=
erflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are not aware that the=
Celastrina genus has been split into several species over the past 20 or s=
o years.=C2=A0 Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three species in North A=
merica.=C2=A0 The Pelham catalogue (butterfliesofamerica.org) recognizes 11=
species, all based on extensive peer-reviewed research.=C2=A0 Thus, many f=
olks posting to iNat or BAMONA still think everything from coast to coast i=
s "C. ladon".=C2=A0 That being said...
To address your email, first, New Hampshire has four Celastrina species: la=
don, lucia, neglecta and serotina.=C2=A0 NH does have ladon, or what we are=
tentatively calling C. ladon.=C2=A0 This is based on the presence of Azure=
s across the southernmost counties of New Hampshire which have the ladon ma=
le dorsal wing scale structure that separates ladon from all other Celastri=
na species.=C2=A0 That "version" of ladon is found throughout southern New =
England, including the two southmost counties in Maine, but there are no re=
cords from Vermont.=C2=A0 This population of ladon actually has hybrid trai=
ts with its northern cousin, C. lucia.=C2=A0 The ventral sides of ladon and=
lucia are virtually impossible to distinguish because each has the same ex=
act range of variation, from spotted venters to heavily-patterned variants,=
but the males have different dorsal wing scale structures.=C2=A0 This is n=
ot "variation", as both scale types breed true as demonstrated by almost 4 =
decades of research.=C2=A0 Both ladon and lucia fly early, and C. serotina =
emerges about a full month later than either.=C2=A0 Serotina is easily dist=
inguished by its whitish venter and well-developed spot pattern.
The newest wrench in the gears of Celastrina identification is that the mul=
tivoltine ecotype of C. neglecta has apparently established itself well int=
o Massachusetts in recent years.=C2=A0 It previously only ranged north to a=
round New York City and not across southern New England.=C2=A0 I've seen a =
number of images that clearly show the multivoltine neglecta spring form in=
Massachusetts.=C2=A0 The problem is that these emerge along with ladon and=
lucia in regions where each occurs.=C2=A0 Neglecta stands out from lucia a=
nd ladon because it is almost pure white beneath with very small spots.=C2=
=A0 People ask me how the "Summer" Azure can produce a spring flight.=C2=A0=
Apparently, this has been the norm throughout the range of multivoltine ne=
glecta - forever.=C2=A0 But we only discovered this in the 1990's.=C2=A0 Wh=
at many people in the south consider C. ladon, turns out to be spring form =
neglecta.=C2=A0 This also has been proven out, over 4 decades of breeding a=
nd fieldwork.=C2=A0 C. neglecta is the predominant spring flight in many re=
gions.=C2=A0 C. ladon, on the other hand, has a much smaller range than neg=
lecta, as evidenced by examination of male wings.=C2=A0 When I review iNat =
records of ladon, probably 95% of those images in the U.S. are, in fact, sp=
ring brood neglecta.
So what about the traditional Summer Azure in New England?=C2=A0 That is a =
different univoltine (or partly bivoltine) neglecta ecotype that flies only=
in July and occasionally in September.=C2=A0 Thus, in southern New England=
, the multivoltine neglecta would fly in April, June and August, whereas un=
ivoltine (or partly bivoltine) neglecta flies in July and occasionally in S=
eptember.=C2=A0 The two ecotypes leap-frog one another, giving the impressi=
on that neglecta flies continuously from June into August or occasionally i=
nto September.=C2=A0 This is an amazing situation, which we are still worki=
ng on.
The recent Butterflies of Maine book, unfortunately, followed a flawed pape=
r by Schmidt & Layberry that discounted C. serotina in Ontario and suggeste=
d it might merely be a "late lucia".=C2=A0 Schmidt & Layberry did not recog=
nize C. ladon in Ontario, of which there are historical records around Pt. =
Pelee.=C2=A0 What we call ladon, based on the male wing scale structure, do=
es occur in southern Maine.=C2=A0 I'm not sure why the authors of the Maine=
book did not consult with either myself or David Wright on Celastrina dist=
ributions.=C2=A0 Schmidt and Layberry also insisted that C. serotina does n=
ot occur in Ontario, based on what I consider premature assumptions and fla=
wed research.=C2=A0 The authors of the Maine book followed suit and did not=
recognize C. serotina in Maine.=C2=A0 I am presently working on a research=
paper that will demonstrate the presence of serotina in both Ontario and M=
aine, based on wing color analysis, and will address flaws in the Schmidt &=
Layberry paper.=C2=A0=C2=A0
Many of our discoveries with Celastrina come after the publication date of =
many recent guides, including the Kaufman guide.=C2=A0 The Kaufman guide ha=
s the most updated taxonomy, though the Pelham list on Butterfliesofamerica=
.com is the most current and authoritative.=C2=A0 Maps in virtually all gui=
des are relatively useless.
I am attaching papers which are more recent, but most folks are not aware o=
f.=C2=A0 The ranges of ladon and neglecta are clearly delineated.=C2=A0 Dav=
e Wright and Gordon Pratt performed an extensive electrophosesis-based anal=
ysis of North American Celastrina populations, yet unpublished that support=
our conclusions, as reflected in the 2023 Pelham Catalogue.=C2=A0 The team=
of Nick Grishin is currently performing extensive allozyme studies of all =
North American populations, that hope to settle the taxonomic issues.=C2=A0=
We are also exploring the presence of at least one, but possibly two new s=
pecies in the eastern U.S.=C2=A0
That Schmidt & Layberry paper can be found at:=C2=A0What Azure blues occur =
in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaeni=
dae)=C2=A0 However, I urge readers to take great caution in accepting what =
is published in this paper.=C2=A0 Neither author consulted with Dave Wright=
or myself to hash over some of the questions they posed.=C2=A0 The paper i=
s flawed, and I will address this in a paper in work, demonstrating C. sero=
tina in Ontario and Maine.
In the meantime, I am attaching my most recent papers that should help answ=
er some questions.=C2=A0 I welcome questions and inquiries!
Harry Pavulaan
=C2=A0
On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve Mirick <smirick@com=
cast.net> wrote: =20

I've noticed that several butterfly folks out there are calling the=20
azures flying around right now (April & May) "Spring Azures" (celastrina=20
ladon) and entering them as such in iNaturalist.=C2=A0 It used to be that a=
ll=20
early spring azures in the northeast were called "Spring Azures", but=20
current research suggests that there are between 2 and 3 species of=20
Azures in April and May in New Hampshire.=C2=A0 These include the confusing=
ly=20
named (and possibly non-occurring) Spring Azure (celastrina ladon), the=20
Northern Azure (celastrina lucia), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure=20
(celastrina serotina).=C2=A0 Identification of these three azures is close =
to=20
impossible based on just photos.=C2=A0 It's a real mess out there right now=
!

Specimens collected in Vermont during their 1st butterfly atlas showed=20
only Northern Azure and Cherry Gall Azure, but DID NOT show any records=20
of "Spring Azure"!=C2=A0 The common early spring flying azure in Vermont is=
=20
now called the Northern Azure (c. lucia).=C2=A0 This is also the case in=20
Maine where the most recent publication "Butterflies of Maine and the=20
Canadian Maritime Provinces" only indicates one species of Azure in the=20
spring and that is the Northern Azure (they don't show any records of=20
Cherry Gall Azure). They state that "Spring Azure" has NOT BEEN=20
CONFIRMED IN MAINE! Both Maine and Vermont now treat nearly all April=20
and May celastrinas (azures) as Northern Azure (C. lucuia).....with a=20
few Cherry Gall Azures in Vermont.

Based on this information, it seems likely (or at least possible) that=20
Spring Azures (C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!!=C2=A0 And everything=
=20
flying right now may in fact best be called Northern Azure!!=C2=A0 The key=
=20
problem is that Spring Azure is almost impossible to ID from Northern=20
Azure without a specimen!=C2=A0 ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENTIFIED BY=20
OVERLAPPING SCALE PATTERN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. Yikes!=C2=A0 Based on this=20
alone, we have no idea if "Spring Azures" occur in NH.

THE MAPS IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift and Kauffman) DON'T REFLECT=20
THIS.=C2=A0 They show Spring Azures (C. ladon) as occurring throughout the=
=20
northeast and into southeastern Canada.=C2=A0 THIS IS FALSE as specimens fr=
om=20
Canada have shown that Spring Azures don't occur there except for a=20
couple of records.

The taxonomy is still evolving and the range of the Spring Azure is=20
still a mystery and it's actually possible there may be other hidden=20
species out there.=C2=A0 I've decided to call my early spring azures as jus=
t=20
"Azure" and enter all of my early spring records from April and May in=20
iNaturalist as "Holarctic Azures" (Celastrina sp.).=C2=A0 If you post to th=
is=20
list or submit azure photos to iNaturalist during these months, you may=20
want to follow this procedure until we figure this mess out!=C2=A0 Summer=
=20
sightings in late June and July are likely a different species "Summer=20
Azure" (c. neglecta), but that's another problem to sort out, and=20
another story...

If anyone out there has any more recent updates on research or opinions,=20
it would be interesting to know about.

Bryan Pfeiffer does a GREAT JOB in discussing this complex on his web=20
site.=C2=A0 Highly recommended.=C2=A0 Click on the download PDF file in the=
first=20
paragraph.

https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-the-blues/

And if you want to dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:

What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt specie=
s (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)=C2=A0=C2=A0=C2=A0


https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017

Steve Mirick
Bradford, MA

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<html><head></head><body><div class=3D"ydp5ed0c36eyahoo-style-wrap" style=
=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px;"><div></div>
<div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false">Steve, all:</div><div dir=3D=
"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false=
">Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who rely solely on Bu=
tterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are not aware that t=
he <i>Celastrina</i> genus has been split into several species over the pas=
t 20 or so years.&nbsp; Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three species i=
n North America.&nbsp; The Pelham catalogue (butterfliesofamerica.org) reco=
gnizes 11 species, all based on extensive peer-reviewed research.&nbsp; Thu=
s, many folks posting to iNat or BAMONA still think everything from coast t=
o coast is "<i>C. ladon</i>".&nbsp; That being said...</div><div dir=3D"ltr=
" data-setdir=3D"false"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false">To=
address your email, first, New Hampshire has four <i>Celastrina </i>specie=
s: <i>ladon, lucia, neglecta</i> and <i>serotina</i>.&nbsp; NH does have <i=
>ladon</i>, or what we are tentatively calling <i>C. ladon</i>.&nbsp; This =
is based on the presence of Azures across the southernmost counties of New =
Hampshire which have the <i>ladon </i>male dorsal wing scale structure that=
separates <i>ladon </i>from all other <i>Celastrina </i>species.&nbsp; Tha=
t "version" of <i>ladon</i> is found throughout southern New England, inclu=
ding the two southmost counties in Maine, but there are no records from Ver=
mont.&nbsp; This population of <i>ladon </i>actually has hybrid traits with=
its northern cousin, <i>C. lucia</i>.&nbsp; The ventral sides of <i>ladon =
</i>and <i>lucia </i>are virtually impossible to distinguish because each h=
as the same exact range of variation, from spotted venters to heavily-patte=
rned variants, but the males have different dorsal wing scale structures.&n=
bsp; This is not "variation", as both scale types breed true as demonstrate=
d by almost 4 decades of research.&nbsp; Both <i>ladon </i>and <i>lucia </i=
>fly early, and <i>C. serotina</i> emerges about a full month later than ei=
ther.&nbsp; <i>Serotina </i>is easily distinguished by its whitish venter a=
nd well-developed spot pattern.</div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false"=
><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false">The newest wrench in the =
gears of <i>Celastrina </i>identification is that the multivoltine ecotype =
of <i>C. neglecta</i> has apparently established itself well into Massachus=
etts in recent years.&nbsp; It previously only ranged north to around New Y=
ork City and not across southern New England.&nbsp; I've seen a number of i=
mages that clearly show the multivoltine <i>neglecta </i>spring form in Mas=
sachusetts.&nbsp; The problem is that these emerge along with <i>ladon </i>=
and <i>lucia </i>in regions where each occurs.&nbsp; <i>Neglecta </i>stands=
out from <i>lucia </i>and <i>ladon </i>because it is almost pure white ben=
eath with very small spots.&nbsp; People ask me how the "Summer" Azure can =
produce a spring flight.&nbsp; Apparently, this has been the norm throughou=
t the range of <u>multivoltine</u> <i>neglecta </i>- forever.&nbsp; But we =
only discovered this in the 1990's.&nbsp; What many people in the south con=
sider <i>C. ladon</i>, turns out to be spring form <i>neglecta</i>.&nbsp; T=
his also has been proven out, over 4 decades of breeding and fieldwork.&nbs=
p; <i>C. neglecta</i> is the predominant spring flight in many regions.&nbs=
p; <i>C. ladon</i>, on the other hand, has a much smaller range than <i>neg=
lecta</i>, as evidenced by examination of male wings.&nbsp; When I review i=
Nat records of <i>ladon</i>, probably 95% of those images in the U.S. are, =
in fact, spring brood <i>neglecta</i>.</div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D=
"false"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false">So what about the =
traditional Summer Azure in New England?&nbsp; That is a different univolti=
ne (or partly bivoltine) <i>neglecta </i>ecotype that flies only in July an=
d occasionally in September.&nbsp; Thus, in southern New England, the multi=
voltine <i>neglecta </i>would fly in April, June and August, whereas univol=
tine (or partly bivoltine) <i>neglecta </i>flies in July and occasionally i=
n September.&nbsp; The two ecotypes leap-frog one another, giving the impre=
ssion that <i>neglecta </i>flies continuously from June into August or occa=
sionally into September.&nbsp; This is an amazing situation, which we are s=
till working on.</div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false"><br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false">The recent Butterflies of Maine book, un=
fortunately, followed a flawed paper by Schmidt &amp; Layberry that discoun=
ted <i>C. serotina</i> in Ontario and suggested it might merely be a "late =
<i>lucia</i>".&nbsp; Schmidt &amp; Layberry did not recognize <i>C. ladon</=
i> in Ontario, of which there are historical records around Pt. Pelee.&nbsp=
; What we call <i>ladon</i>, based on the male wing scale structure, does o=
ccur in southern Maine.&nbsp; I'm not sure why the authors of the Maine boo=
k did not consult with either myself or David Wright on <i>Celastrina </i>d=
istributions.&nbsp; Schmidt and Layberry also insisted that <i>C. serotina<=
/i> does not occur in Ontario, based on what I consider premature assumptio=
ns and flawed research.&nbsp; The authors of the Maine book followed suit a=
nd did not recognize <i>C. serotina</i> in Maine.&nbsp; I am presently work=
ing on a research paper that will demonstrate the presence of <i>serotina <=
/i>in both Ontario and Maine, based on wing color analysis, and will addres=
s flaws in the Schmidt &amp; Layberry paper.&nbsp;&nbsp;</div><div dir=3D"l=
tr" data-setdir=3D"false"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false">=
Many of our discoveries with <i>Celastrina </i>come after the publication d=
ate of many recent guides, including the Kaufman guide.&nbsp; The Kaufman g=
uide has the most updated taxonomy, though the Pelham list on Butterfliesof=
america.com is the most current and authoritative.&nbsp; Maps in virtually =
all guides are relatively useless.</div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"fal=
se"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false">I am attaching papers =
which are more recent, but most folks are not aware of.&nbsp; The ranges of=
<i>ladon </i>and <i>neglecta </i>are clearly delineated.&nbsp; Dave Wright=
and Gordon Pratt performed an extensive electrophosesis-based analysis of =
North American <i>Celastrina </i>populations, yet unpublished that support =
our conclusions, as reflected in the 2023 Pelham Catalogue.&nbsp; The team =
of Nick Grishin is currently performing extensive allozyme studies of all N=
orth American populations, that hope to settle the taxonomic issues.&nbsp; =
We are also exploring the presence of at least one, but possibly two new sp=
ecies in the eastern U.S.&nbsp;</div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false"=
><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false">That Schmidt &amp; Layber=
ry paper can be found at:&nbsp;<span><a href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net=
/articles.php?id=3D7882" class=3D"ydpd9851bceenhancr_card_5012560651" style=
=3D"color: rgb(25, 106, 212); text-decoration-line: underline; font-family:=
Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;" rel=3D"nofollow" target=3D"=
_blank">What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tut=
t species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)</a><span style=3D"color: rgb(38, 40, 42=
); font-family: Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">&nbsp; Howev=
er, I urge readers to take great caution in accepting what is published in =
this paper.&nbsp; Neither author consulted with Dave Wright or myself to ha=
sh over some of the questions they posed.&nbsp; The paper is flawed, and I =
will address this in a paper in work, demonstrating <i>C. serotin</i>a in O=
ntario and Maine.</span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false"=
><span><span style=3D"color: rgb(38, 40, 42); font-family: Helvetica Neue, =
Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;"><br></span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr" dat=
a-setdir=3D"false"><span><span style=3D"color: rgb(38, 40, 42); font-family=
: Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">In the meantime, I am atta=
ching my most recent papers that should help answer some questions.&nbsp; I=
welcome questions and inquiries!</span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-=
setdir=3D"false"><span><span style=3D"color: rgb(38, 40, 42); font-family: =
Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;"><br></span></span></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false"><span><span style=3D"color: rgb(38, 40, =
42); font-family: Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Harry Pavu=
laan</span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false"><br></div><d=
iv dir=3D"ltr" data-setdir=3D"false">&nbsp;</div><div><br></div>
=20
</div><div id=3D"ydp6b4884cfyahoo_quoted_5113578798" class=3D"ydp6b=
4884cfyahoo_quoted"><div class=3D"ydp6b4884cfyahoo-style-wrap" style=3D"fon=
t-family:arial;font-size:16px;">
<div style=3D"font-family:'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, s=
ans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;">
=20
<div>
On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve=
Mirick &lt;<smirick...>&gt; wrote:
</div>
</div><div style=3D"font-family:'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica=
, Arial, sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left: 1px solid #cc=
c;padding-left: 8px;margin: 0px 0px 0px 8px" class=3D"ydp6b4884cfinline_rep=
ly_quote_container" data-split-quote-node=3D"true">
<div><br></div><div><br></div>
<div><div dir=3D"ltr">I've noticed that several butterfly f=
olks out there are calling the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">azures flying aro=
und right now (April &amp; May) "Spring Azures" (celastrina <br></div><div =
dir=3D"ltr">ladon) and entering them as such in iNaturalist.&nbsp; It used =
to be that all <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">early spring azures in the northe=
ast were called "Spring Azures", but <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">current res=
earch suggests that there are between 2 and 3 species of <br></div><div dir=
=3D"ltr">Azures in April and May in New Hampshire.&nbsp; These include the =
confusingly <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">named (and possibly non-occurring) S=
pring Azure (celastrina ladon), the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Northern Azu=
re (celastrina lucia), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure <br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr">(celastrina serotina).&nbsp; Identification of these three azure=
s is close to <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">impossible based on just photos.&n=
bsp; It's a real mess out there right now!<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></=
div><div dir=3D"ltr">Specimens collected in Vermont during their 1st butter=
fly atlas showed <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">only Northern Azure and Cherry =
Gall Azure, but DID NOT show any records <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">of "Spr=
ing Azure"!&nbsp; The common early spring flying azure in Vermont is <br></=
div><div dir=3D"ltr">now called the Northern Azure (c. lucia).&nbsp; This i=
s also the case in <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Maine where the most recent p=
ublication "Butterflies of Maine and the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Canadia=
n Maritime Provinces" only indicates one species of Azure in the <br></div>=
<div dir=3D"ltr">spring and that is the Northern Azure (they don't show any=
records of <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Cherry Gall Azure). They state that =
"Spring Azure" has NOT BEEN <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">CONFIRMED IN MAINE! =
Both Maine and Vermont now treat nearly all April <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr=
">and May celastrinas (azures) as Northern Azure (C. lucuia).....with a <br=
></div><div dir=3D"ltr">few Cherry Gall Azures in Vermont.<br></div><div di=
r=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Based on this information, it seems li=
kely (or at least possible) that <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Spring Azures (=
C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!!&nbsp; And everything <br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr">flying right now may in fact best be called Northern Azure!!&n=
bsp; The key <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">problem is that Spring Azure is alm=
ost impossible to ID from Northern <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Azure without=
a specimen!&nbsp; ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENTIFIED BY <br></div><div di=
r=3D"ltr">OVERLAPPING SCALE PATTERN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. Yikes!&nbsp; Based =
on this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">alone, we have no idea if "Spring Azures=
" occur in NH.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">THE MAP=
S IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift and Kauffman) DON'T REFLECT <br></div>=
<div dir=3D"ltr">THIS.&nbsp; They show Spring Azures (C. ladon) as occurrin=
g throughout the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">northeast and into southeastern=
Canada.&nbsp; THIS IS FALSE as specimens from <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">C=
anada have shown that Spring Azures don't occur there except for a <br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr">couple of records.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr">The taxonomy is still evolving and the range of the Spring =
Azure is <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">still a mystery and it's actually possi=
ble there may be other hidden <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">species out there.=
&nbsp; I've decided to call my early spring azures as just <br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr">"Azure" and enter all of my early spring records from April and =
May in <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">iNaturalist as "Holarctic Azures" (Celast=
rina sp.).&nbsp; If you post to this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">list or sub=
mit azure photos to iNaturalist during these months, you may <br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr">want to follow this procedure until we figure this mess out!&n=
bsp; Summer <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">sightings in late June and July are =
likely a different species "Summer <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Azure" (c. ne=
glecta), but that's another problem to sort out, and <br></div><div dir=3D"=
ltr">another story...<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=
If anyone out there has any more recent updates on research or opinions, <b=
r></div><div dir=3D"ltr">it would be interesting to know about.<br></div><d=
iv dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Bryan Pfeiffer does a GREAT JOB i=
n discussing this complex on his web <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">site.&nbsp;=
Highly recommended.&nbsp; Click on the download PDF file in the first <br>=
</div><div dir=3D"ltr">paragraph.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div =
dir=3D"ltr"><a href=3D"https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-the-blu=
es/" rel=3D"nofollow" target=3D"_blank">https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/0=
2/getting-the-blues/</a><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"lt=
r">And if you want to dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:<=
br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><a href=3D"https://zoo=
keys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882" rel=3D"nofollow" target=3D"_blank"=
class=3D"enhancr_card_5012560651">What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-a=
ssessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)</a>&nbsp;&nb=
sp;<span style=3D"color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: arial; font-size: 16px;=
">&nbsp;</span></div></div></div><div style=3D"font-family:'Helvetica Neue'=
, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left: 1p=
x solid #ccc;padding-left: 8px;margin: 0px 0px 0px 8px" class=3D"ydp6b4884c=
finline_reply_quote_container" data-split-quote-node=3D"true"><div><div><br=
></div><div><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><a href=
=3D"https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017" rel=3D"nofollow" target=3D"_blank=
">https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017</a><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></=
div><div dir=3D"ltr">Steve Mirick<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Bradford, MA<br=
></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">-- <br></div><div dir=3D=
"ltr">You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Gr=
oups "MassLep" group.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">To unsubscribe from this gr=
oup and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to masslep+unsubscribe=
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web visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/51fde5d5-47b1-4c0b-be4=
<4-f1d204a9bc70...><br></div></div>
</div>
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ium=3Demail&utm_source=3Dfooter">https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/=
<393751607.2349501.1714161939374...></a>.<br />

------=_Part_2349495_515441626.1714161937247--

------=_Part_2349500_1253312687.1714161939374
Content-Type: application/pdf
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="T REPORT 10(2a) Celastrina ladon
and Celastrina neglecta are distinct species.pdf"
Content-ID: <daea2d0d-a869-14b5-afa7-9c8642b90713...>

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