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List: MassLep
Date: Sat, 27 Apr 2024 08:28:59 -0700 (PDT)
From: 'John Calhoun' via MassLep <masslep...>
Subject: Re: [MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what are they?

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As a coauthor of the recent Maine and Maritimes butterfly book, I feel that=
=20
I must chime in here.=20

=20

Harry, you are quick to criticize our treatment of *Celastrina*, but we=20
made a concerted effort to recognize that other species may occur in the=20
region, and state that we "tentatively" follow the arrangement of Schmidt=
=20
and Layberry (2016). We also add that "As the understanding of *Celastrina*=
=20
taxonomy improves, other cryptic species (such as the Cherry Gall Azure)=20
may be detected here." We also include a discussion of the possible=20
presence of the Spring Azure and Cherry Gall Azure in Maine in the section=
=20
=E2=80=9CButterflies of Possible Occurrence=E2=80=9D at the back of the boo=
k, where we note=20
that further study is needed to understand the status of such phenotypes.=
=20
We even state that =E2=80=9CIt is possible that the Cherry Gall Azure will =
be=20
confirmed in our region.=E2=80=9D We were fully aware that there are differ=
ent=20
interpretations about the various phenotypes that occur in Maine, and=20
concede that our treatment will not necessarily stand the test of time.=20
This is also true of all the various studies out there, as well as those to=
=20
come.

=20

Harry, you question why we did not consult with you or David Wright =E2=80=
=93 but=20
we actually did. The treatment of *Celastrina *in our book was fully=20
reviewed by Dave. You will even notice in the *neglecta* account that Dave=
=20
is cited as =E2=80=9Cpers. comm. to J. Calhoun.=E2=80=9D Dave was also one =
of the reviewers=20
of the entire book prior to publication. It was Dave who suggested that the=
=20
=E2=80=9CSpring Azures=E2=80=9D in southern Maine are possibly just Norther=
n Azures that=20
present Spring Azure traits, =E2=80=9Cperhaps the result of past genetic=20
introgression from the Spring Azure at the northern limits of its range."=
=20

=20

We made every effort to present a reasonable treatment of *Celastrina*, but=
=20
there are so many differing opinions about this group that no matter what=
=20
is written, someone will disagree. In fact, a recent paper titled =E2=80=9C=
A=20
genetic atlas for the butterflies of continental Canada and the United=20
States=E2=80=9D (2024, PLoS ONE 19(4)) suggests that all North American *Ce=
lastrina*=20
represent one species! However, I was told that not all the authors of this=
=20
paper approve of that conclusion, so there is even disagreement among=20
coauthors of individual papers.=20

=20

I think we need to be careful not to suggest that our own opinions are the=
=20
only correct ones. In the end, it=E2=80=99s all about personal experience a=
nd=20
interpretation. We must each decide which treatment to follow and forge=20
ahead. I personally await extensive genomic analyses of all the various=20
phenotypes, cross-referenced with biology and morphology, but that may be=
=20
years away. Even then, such results will be open to interpretation.=20

=20

John Calhoun

=20
On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 4:06:02=E2=80=AFPM UTC-4 <pavulaan...> wrot=
e:

> Steve, all:
>
> Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who rely solely on=20
> Butterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are not aware th=
at=20
> the *Celastrina* genus has been split into several species over the past=
=20
> 20 or so years. Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three species in Nor=
th=20
> America. The Pelham catalogue (butterfliesofamerica.org) recognizes 11=
=20
> species, all based on extensive peer-reviewed research. Thus, many folks=
=20
> posting to iNat or BAMONA still think everything from coast to coast is "=
*C.=20
> ladon*". That being said...
>
> To address your email, first, New Hampshire has four *Celastrina *species=
:=20
> *ladon, lucia, neglecta* and *serotina*. NH does have *ladon*, or what=
=20
> we are tentatively calling *C. ladon*. This is based on the presence of=
=20
> Azures across the southernmost counties of New Hampshire which have the *=
ladon=20
> *male dorsal wing scale structure that separates *ladon *from all other *=
Celastrina=20
> *species. That "version" of *ladon* is found throughout southern New=20
> England, including the two southmost counties in Maine, but there are no=
=20
> records from Vermont. This population of *ladon *actually has hybrid=20
> traits with its northern cousin, *C. lucia*. The ventral sides of *ladon=
=20
> *and *lucia *are virtually impossible to distinguish because each has the=
=20
> same exact range of variation, from spotted venters to heavily-patterned=
=20
> variants, but the males have different dorsal wing scale structures. Thi=
s=20
> is not "variation", as both scale types breed true as demonstrated by=20
> almost 4 decades of research. Both *ladon *and *lucia *fly early, and *C=
.=20
> serotina* emerges about a full month later than either. *Serotina *is=20
> easily distinguished by its whitish venter and well-developed spot patter=
n.
>
> The newest wrench in the gears of *Celastrina *identification is that the=
=20
> multivoltine ecotype of *C. neglecta* has apparently established itself=
=20
> well into Massachusetts in recent years. It previously only ranged north=
=20
> to around New York City and not across southern New England. I've seen a=
=20
> number of images that clearly show the multivoltine *neglecta *spring=20
> form in Massachusetts. The problem is that these emerge along with *lado=
n=20
> *and *lucia *in regions where each occurs. *Neglecta *stands out from *l=
ucia=20
> *and *ladon *because it is almost pure white beneath with very small=20
> spots. People ask me how the "Summer" Azure can produce a spring flight.=
=20
> Apparently, this has been the norm throughout the range of *multivoltine*=
*neglecta=20
> *- forever. But we only discovered this in the 1990's. What many people=
=20
> in the south consider *C. ladon*, turns out to be spring form *neglecta*.=
=20
> This also has been proven out, over 4 decades of breeding and fieldwork. =
*C.=20
> neglecta* is the predominant spring flight in many regions. *C. ladon*,=
=20
> on the other hand, has a much smaller range than *neglecta*, as evidenced=
=20
> by examination of male wings. When I review iNat records of *ladon*,=20
> probably 95% of those images in the U.S. are, in fact, spring brood=20
> *neglecta*.
>
> So what about the traditional Summer Azure in New England? That is a=20
> different univoltine (or partly bivoltine) *neglecta *ecotype that flies=
=20
> only in July and occasionally in September. Thus, in southern New Englan=
d,=20
> the multivoltine *neglecta *would fly in April, June and August, whereas=
=20
> univoltine (or partly bivoltine) *neglecta *flies in July and=20
> occasionally in September. The two ecotypes leap-frog one another, givin=
g=20
> the impression that *neglecta *flies continuously from June into August=
=20
> or occasionally into September. This is an amazing situation, which we a=
re=20
> still working on.
>
> The recent Butterflies of Maine book, unfortunately, followed a flawed=20
> paper by Schmidt & Layberry that discounted *C. serotina* in Ontario and=
=20
> suggested it might merely be a "late *lucia*". Schmidt & Layberry did=20
> not recognize *C. ladon* in Ontario, of which there are historical=20
> records around Pt. Pelee. What we call *ladon*, based on the male wing=
=20
> scale structure, does occur in southern Maine. I'm not sure why the=20
> authors of the Maine book did not consult with either myself or David=20
> Wright on *Celastrina *distributions. Schmidt and Layberry also insisted=
=20
> that *C. serotina* does not occur in Ontario, based on what I consider=20
> premature assumptions and flawed research. The authors of the Maine book=
=20
> followed suit and did not recognize *C. serotina* in Maine. I am=20
> presently working on a research paper that will demonstrate the presence =
of *serotina=20
> *in both Ontario and Maine, based on wing color analysis, and will=20
> address flaws in the Schmidt & Layberry paper. =20
>
> Many of our discoveries with *Celastrina *come after the publication date=
=20
> of many recent guides, including the Kaufman guide. The Kaufman guide ha=
s=20
> the most updated taxonomy, though the Pelham list on=20
> Butterfliesofamerica.com is the most current and authoritative. Maps in=
=20
> virtually all guides are relatively useless.
>
> I am attaching papers which are more recent, but most folks are not aware=
=20
> of. The ranges of *ladon *and *neglecta *are clearly delineated. Dave=
=20
> Wright and Gordon Pratt performed an extensive electrophosesis-based=20
> analysis of North American *Celastrina *populations, yet unpublished that=
=20
> support our conclusions, as reflected in the 2023 Pelham Catalogue. The=
=20
> team of Nick Grishin is currently performing extensive allozyme studies o=
f=20
> all North American populations, that hope to settle the taxonomic issues.=
=20
> We are also exploring the presence of at least one, but possibly two new=
=20
> species in the eastern U.S.=20
>
> That Schmidt & Layberry paper can be found at: What Azure blues occur in=
=20
> Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenid=
ae)=20
> <https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882> However, I urge=20
> readers to take great caution in accepting what is published in this=20
> paper. Neither author consulted with Dave Wright or myself to hash over=
=20
> some of the questions they posed. The paper is flawed, and I will addres=
s=20
> this in a paper in work, demonstrating *C. serotin*a in Ontario and Maine=
.
>
> In the meantime, I am attaching my most recent papers that should help=20
> answer some questions. I welcome questions and inquiries!
>
> Harry Pavulaan
>
> =20
>
> On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve Mirick <
> <smi......> wrote:=20
> I've noticed that several butterfly folks out there are calling the=20
> azures flying around right now (April & May) "Spring Azures" (celastrina=
=20
> ladon) and entering them as such in iNaturalist. It used to be that all=
=20
> early spring azures in the northeast were called "Spring Azures", but=20
> current research suggests that there are between 2 and 3 species of=20
> Azures in April and May in New Hampshire. These include the confusingly=
=20
> named (and possibly non-occurring) Spring Azure (celastrina ladon), the=
=20
> Northern Azure (celastrina lucia), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure=20
> (celastrina serotina). Identification of these three azures is close to=
=20
> impossible based on just photos. It's a real mess out there right now!
>
> Specimens collected in Vermont during their 1st butterfly atlas showed=20
> only Northern Azure and Cherry Gall Azure, but DID NOT show any records=
=20
> of "Spring Azure"! The common early spring flying azure in Vermont is=20
> now called the Northern Azure (c. lucia). This is also the case in=20
> Maine where the most recent publication "Butterflies of Maine and the=20
> Canadian Maritime Provinces" only indicates one species of Azure in the=
=20
> spring and that is the Northern Azure (they don't show any records of=20
> Cherry Gall Azure). They state that "Spring Azure" has NOT BEEN=20
> CONFIRMED IN MAINE! Both Maine and Vermont now treat nearly all April=20
> and May celastrinas (azures) as Northern Azure (C. lucuia).....with a=20
> few Cherry Gall Azures in Vermont.
>
> Based on this information, it seems likely (or at least possible) that=20
> Spring Azures (C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!! And everything=20
> flying right now may in fact best be called Northern Azure!! The key=20
> problem is that Spring Azure is almost impossible to ID from Northern=20
> Azure without a specimen! ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENTIFIED BY=20
> OVERLAPPING SCALE PATTERN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. Yikes! Based on this=20
> alone, we have no idea if "Spring Azures" occur in NH.
>
> THE MAPS IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift and Kauffman) DON'T REFLECT=
=20
> THIS. They show Spring Azures (C. ladon) as occurring throughout the=20
> northeast and into southeastern Canada. THIS IS FALSE as specimens from=
=20
> Canada have shown that Spring Azures don't occur there except for a=20
> couple of records.
>
> The taxonomy is still evolving and the range of the Spring Azure is=20
> still a mystery and it's actually possible there may be other hidden=20
> species out there. I've decided to call my early spring azures as just=
=20
> "Azure" and enter all of my early spring records from April and May in=20
> iNaturalist as "Holarctic Azures" (Celastrina sp.). If you post to this=
=20
> list or submit azure photos to iNaturalist during these months, you may=
=20
> want to follow this procedure until we figure this mess out! Summer=20
> sightings in late June and July are likely a different species "Summer=20
> Azure" (c. neglecta), but that's another problem to sort out, and=20
> another story...
>
> If anyone out there has any more recent updates on research or opinions,=
=20
> it would be interesting to know about.
>
> Bryan Pfeiffer does a GREAT JOB in discussing this complex on his web=20
> site. Highly recommended. Click on the download PDF file in the first=
=20
> paragraph.
>
> https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-the-blues/
>
> And if you want to dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:
>
> What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt=20
> species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)=20
> <https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882> =20
>
>
>
> https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017
>
> Steve Mirick
> Bradford, MA
>
> --=20
> You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups=
=20
> "MassLep" group.
> To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an=
=20
> email to masslep+<u......>
> To view this discussion on the web visit=20
> https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/51fde5d5-47b1-4c0b-be44-f1d204a=
<9bc70...>
> .
>

--=20
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To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an e=
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<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal;"><fon=
t size=3D"3"><span style=3D"font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: black; b=
ackground-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: in=
itial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; backgrou=
nd-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">As a coauthor of the recent =
Maine and
Maritimes butterfly book, I feel that I must chime in here. </span><span st=
yle=3D"font-family: Arial, sans-serif; background-image: initial; backgroun=
d-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; =
background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip=
: initial;"></span></font></p>

<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal;"><spa=
n style=3D"font-family: Arial, sans-serif; background-image: initial; backg=
round-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initi=
al; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-=
clip: initial;"><font size=3D"3">=C2=A0</font></span></p>

<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal; backg=
round-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initia=
l; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-o=
rigin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><font size=3D"3"><span style=3D"=
font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: black; background-image: initial; ba=
ckground-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: in=
itial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; backgrou=
nd-clip: initial;">Harry, you are quick to criticize our treatment of <i>Ce=
lastrina</i>, but
we made a concerted effort to recognize that other species may occur in the
region, and </span><span style=3D"font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: bl=
ack;">state that we "tentatively"
follow the arrangement of Schmidt and Layberry (2016). We also add that
"As the understanding of <i>Celastrina</i> taxonomy improves, other
cryptic species (such as the Cherry Gall Azure) may be detected here." </sp=
an><span style=3D"font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: black;">We also in=
clude a discussion of the possible presence of the Spring
Azure and Cherry Gall Azure in Maine in the section =E2=80=9CButterflies of=
Possible
Occurrence=E2=80=9D at the back of the book, where we note that further stu=
dy is needed
to understand the status of such phenotypes. We even state that =E2=80=9CIt=
is possible
that the Cherry Gall Azure will be confirmed in our region.=E2=80=9D=C2=A0<=
/span></font><span style=3D"color: black; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; f=
ont-size: medium;">We were fully
aware that there are different interpretations about the various phenotypes
that occur in Maine, and concede that our treatment will not necessarily st=
and the test of time. This is also true of all the
various studies out there, as well as those to come.</span></p>

<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal; backg=
round-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initia=
l; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-o=
rigin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style=3D"font-family: Aria=
l, sans-serif;"><font size=3D"3">=C2=A0</font></span></p>

<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal; backg=
round-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initia=
l; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-o=
rigin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><font size=3D"3"><span style=3D"=
font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: black;">Harry, you question
why we did not </span><span style=3D"font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color:=
black;">consult with you or David Wright =E2=80=93 but we
actually did. The treatment of <i>Celastrina </i>in our book was fully revi=
ewed
by Dave. You will even notice in the <i>neglecta</i> account that Dave is c=
ited
as =E2=80=9Cpers. comm. to J. Calhoun.=E2=80=9D Dave was also one of the re=
viewers of the entire
book prior to publication. It was Dave who suggested that the =E2=80=9CSpri=
ng Azures=E2=80=9D
in southern Maine are possibly just Northern Azures that present Spring Azu=
re traits,
=E2=80=9C</span><span style=3D"font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: black=
;">perhaps the result of past genetic
introgression from the Spring Azure at the northern limits of its range."=
=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"></span></font>=
</p>

<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal; backg=
round-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initia=
l; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-o=
rigin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style=3D"font-family: Aria=
l, sans-serif;"><font size=3D"3">=C2=A0</font></span></p>

<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal; backg=
round-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initia=
l; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-o=
rigin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><font size=3D"3"><span style=3D"=
font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: black;">We made every
effort to present a reasonable treatment of <i>Celastrina</i>, but there ar=
e so
many differing opinions about this group that no matter what is written, so=
meone
will disagree. In fact, a recent paper titled =E2=80=9CA genetic atlas for =
the
butterflies of continental Canada and the United States=E2=80=9D (2024,=C2=
=A0</span><span style=3D"font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(32, 32,=
32); background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-s=
ize: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; b=
ackground-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">PLoS ONE 19(4)) sugge=
sts </span><span style=3D"font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: black;">th=
at
all North American <i>Celastrina</i> represent one species! However, I was =
told
that not all the authors of this paper approve of that conclusion, so there=
is even
disagreement among coauthors of individual papers. </span><span style=3D"fo=
nt-family: Arial, sans-serif;"></span></font></p>

<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal; backg=
round-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initia=
l; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-o=
rigin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style=3D"font-family: Aria=
l, sans-serif;"><font size=3D"3">=C2=A0</font></span></p>

<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal; backg=
round-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initia=
l; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-o=
rigin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style=3D"font-size: medium=
; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: black;">I think we need to be care=
ful not to suggest that our own opinions are the only correct ones</span><s=
pan style=3D"font-size: medium; font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: blac=
k;">.</span><span style=3D"font-size: medium; font-family: Arial, sans-seri=
f; color: black;">=C2=A0In the end, it=E2=80=99s all about personal experie=
nce and interpretation. We must each decide which treatment to follow and f=
orge ahead.=C2=A0</span><font size=3D"3"><span style=3D"font-family: Arial,=
sans-serif; color: black;">I personally
await extensive genomic analyses of all the various phenotypes, cross-refer=
enced
with biology and morphology, but that may be years away. Even then, such re=
sults will be open to interpretation.=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"font-famil=
y: Arial, sans-serif;"></span></font></p>

<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal; backg=
round-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initia=
l; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-o=
rigin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style=3D"font-family: Aria=
l, sans-serif;"><font size=3D"3">=C2=A0</font></span></p>

<p style=3D"margin-bottom: 0in; margin-top: 0in; line-height: normal; backg=
round-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initia=
l; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-o=
rigin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style=3D"font-family: Aria=
l, sans-serif; color: black;"><font size=3D"3">John Calhoun</font></span><s=
pan style=3D"font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"></span></p><=
div><br /></div><div>=C2=A0 =C2=A0 =C2=A0<br /></div><div class=3D"gmail_qu=
ote"><div dir=3D"auto" class=3D"gmail_attr">On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 4:=
06:02=E2=80=AFPM UTC-4 <pavulaan...> wrote:<br/></div><blockquote class=
=3D"gmail_quote" style=3D"margin: 0 0 0 0.8ex; border-left: 1px solid rgb(2=
04, 204, 204); padding-left: 1ex;"><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;fon=
t-size:16px"><div></div>
<div dir=3D"ltr">Steve, all:</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr">Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who rely sol=
ely on Butterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are not awa=
re that the <i>Celastrina</i> genus has been split into several species ove=
r the past 20 or so years.=C2=A0 Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three =
species in North America.=C2=A0 The Pelham catalogue (<a href=3D"http://but=
terfliesofamerica.org" target=3D"_blank" rel=3D"nofollow" data-saferedirect=
url=3D"https://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttp://butterfliesofameri=
ca.org&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714309895262000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw1ybCpH=
_7yq5ykLRzB9WtEW">butterfliesofamerica.org</a>) recognizes 11 species, all =
based on extensive peer-reviewed research.=C2=A0 Thus, many folks posting t=
o iNat or BAMONA still think everything from coast to coast is &quot;<i>C. =
ladon</i>&quot;.=C2=A0 That being said...</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr">To address your email, first, New Hampshire has four <i>Cel=
astrina </i>species: <i>ladon, lucia, neglecta</i> and <i>serotina</i>.=C2=
=A0 NH does have <i>ladon</i>, or what we are tentatively calling <i>C. lad=
on</i>.=C2=A0 This is based on the presence of Azures across the southernmo=
st counties of New Hampshire which have the <i>ladon </i>male dorsal wing s=
cale structure that separates <i>ladon </i>from all other <i>Celastrina </i=
>species.=C2=A0 That &quot;version&quot; of <i>ladon</i> is found throughou=
t southern New England, including the two southmost counties in Maine, but =
there are no records from Vermont.=C2=A0 This population of <i>ladon </i>ac=
tually has hybrid traits with its northern cousin, <i>C. lucia</i>.=C2=A0 T=
he ventral sides of <i>ladon </i>and <i>lucia </i>are virtually impossible =
to distinguish because each has the same exact range of variation, from spo=
tted venters to heavily-patterned variants, but the males have different do=
rsal wing scale structures.=C2=A0 This is not &quot;variation&quot;, as bot=
h scale types breed true as demonstrated by almost 4 decades of research.=
=C2=A0 Both <i>ladon </i>and <i>lucia </i>fly early, and <i>C. serotina</i>=
emerges about a full month later than either.=C2=A0 <i>Serotina </i>is eas=
ily distinguished by its whitish venter and well-developed spot pattern.</d=
iv><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">The newest wrench in the gea=
rs of <i>Celastrina </i>identification is that the multivoltine ecotype of =
<i>C. neglecta</i> has apparently established itself well into Massachusett=
s in recent years.=C2=A0 It previously only ranged north to around New York=
City and not across southern New England.=C2=A0 I&#39;ve seen a number of =
images that clearly show the multivoltine <i>neglecta </i>spring form in Ma=
ssachusetts.=C2=A0 The problem is that these emerge along with <i>ladon </i=
>and <i>lucia </i>in regions where each occurs.=C2=A0 <i>Neglecta </i>stand=
s out from <i>lucia </i>and <i>ladon </i>because it is almost pure white be=
neath with very small spots.=C2=A0 People ask me how the &quot;Summer&quot;=
Azure can produce a spring flight.=C2=A0 Apparently, this has been the nor=
m throughout the range of <u>multivoltine</u> <i>neglecta </i>- forever.=C2=
=A0 But we only discovered this in the 1990&#39;s.=C2=A0 What many people i=
n the south consider <i>C. ladon</i>, turns out to be spring form <i>neglec=
ta</i>.=C2=A0 This also has been proven out, over 4 decades of breeding and=
fieldwork.=C2=A0 <i>C. neglecta</i> is the predominant spring flight in ma=
ny regions.=C2=A0 <i>C. ladon</i>, on the other hand, has a much smaller ra=
nge than <i>neglecta</i>, as evidenced by examination of male wings.=C2=A0 =
When I review iNat records of <i>ladon</i>, probably 95% of those images in=
the U.S. are, in fact, spring brood <i>neglecta</i>.</div><div dir=3D"ltr"=
><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">So what about the traditional Summer Azure in N=
ew England?=C2=A0 That is a different univoltine (or partly bivoltine) <i>n=
eglecta </i>ecotype that flies only in July and occasionally in September.=
=C2=A0 Thus, in southern New England, the multivoltine <i>neglecta </i>woul=
d fly in April, June and August, whereas univoltine (or partly bivoltine) <=
i>neglecta </i>flies in July and occasionally in September.=C2=A0 The two e=
cotypes leap-frog one another, giving the impression that <i>neglecta </i>f=
lies continuously from June into August or occasionally into September.=C2=
=A0 This is an amazing situation, which we are still working on.</div><div =
dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">The recent Butterflies of Maine book=
, unfortunately, followed a flawed paper by Schmidt &amp; Layberry that dis=
counted <i>C. serotina</i> in Ontario and suggested it might merely be a &q=
uot;late <i>lucia</i>&quot;.=C2=A0 Schmidt &amp; Layberry did not recognize=
<i>C. ladon</i> in Ontario, of which there are historical records around P=
t. Pelee.=C2=A0 What we call <i>ladon</i>, based on the male wing scale str=
ucture, does occur in southern Maine.=C2=A0 I&#39;m not sure why the author=
s of the Maine book did not consult with either myself or David Wright on <=
i>Celastrina </i>distributions.=C2=A0 Schmidt and Layberry also insisted th=
at <i>C. serotina</i> does not occur in Ontario, based on what I consider p=
remature assumptions and flawed research.=C2=A0 The authors of the Maine bo=
ok followed suit and did not recognize <i>C. serotina</i> in Maine.=C2=A0 I=
am presently working on a research paper that will demonstrate the presenc=
e of <i>serotina </i>in both Ontario and Maine, based on wing color analysi=
s, and will address flaws in the Schmidt &amp; Layberry paper.=C2=A0=C2=A0<=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Many of our discoveries wi=
th <i>Celastrina </i>come after the publication date of many recent guides,=
including the Kaufman guide.=C2=A0 The Kaufman guide has the most updated =
taxonomy, though the Pelham list on Butterfliesofamerica.com is the most cu=
rrent and authoritative.=C2=A0 Maps in virtually all guides are relatively =
useless.</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">I am attaching pa=
pers which are more recent, but most folks are not aware of.=C2=A0 The rang=
es of <i>ladon </i>and <i>neglecta </i>are clearly delineated.=C2=A0 Dave W=
right and Gordon Pratt performed an extensive electrophosesis-based analysi=
s of North American <i>Celastrina </i>populations, yet unpublished that sup=
port our conclusions, as reflected in the 2023 Pelham Catalogue.=C2=A0 The =
team of Nick Grishin is currently performing extensive allozyme studies of =
all North American populations, that hope to settle the taxonomic issues.=
=C2=A0 We are also exploring the presence of at least one, but possibly two=
new species in the eastern U.S.=C2=A0</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr">That Schmidt &amp; Layberry paper can be found at:=C2=A0<span>=
<a href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882" style=3D"col=
or:rgb(25,106,212);text-decoration-line:underline;font-family:Helvetica Neu=
e,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif" rel=3D"nofollow" target=3D"_blank" data-safer=
edirecturl=3D"https://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttps://zookeys.pe=
nsoft.net/articles.php?id%3D7882&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714309895263=
000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw24WmVZPk-HUySwpK5Er5Ij">What Azure blues occur in Canad=
a? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)</a>=
<span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Ari=
al,sans-serif">=C2=A0 However, I urge readers to take great caution in acce=
pting what is published in this paper.=C2=A0 Neither author consulted with =
Dave Wright or myself to hash over some of the questions they posed.=C2=A0 =
The paper is flawed, and I will address this in a paper in work, demonstrat=
ing <i>C. serotin</i>a in Ontario and Maine.</span></span></div><div dir=3D=
"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:Helvetica Neue,H=
elvetica,Arial,sans-serif"><br></span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><span><=
span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Aria=
l,sans-serif">In the meantime, I am attaching my most recent papers that sh=
ould help answer some questions.=C2=A0 I welcome questions and inquiries!</=
span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42)=
;font-family:Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif"><br></span></span><=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:=
Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif">Harry Pavulaan</span></span></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=C2=A0</div><div><br></div>
=20
</div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"></div></=
div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px">
<div style=3D"font-family:&#39;Helvetica Neue&#39;,Helvetica,Ar=
ial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a">
=20
<div>
On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve=
Mirick &lt;<a href data-email-masked rel=3D"nofollow"><smi......></=
a>&gt; wrote:
</div>
</div></div></div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family=
:arial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:&#39;Helvetica Neue&#39;,H=
elvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left:1px soli=
d #ccc;padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div dir=3D"ltr">I&#39=
;ve noticed that several butterfly folks out there are calling the <br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr">azures flying around right now (April &amp; May) &quot;S=
pring Azures&quot; (celastrina <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">ladon) and enteri=
ng them as such in iNaturalist.=C2=A0 It used to be that all <br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr">early spring azures in the northeast were called &quot;Spring =
Azures&quot;, but <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">current research suggests that=
there are between 2 and 3 species of <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Azures in =
April and May in New Hampshire.=C2=A0 These include the confusingly <br></d=
iv><div dir=3D"ltr">named (and possibly non-occurring) Spring Azure (celast=
rina ladon), the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Northern Azure (celastrina luci=
a), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">(celastr=
ina serotina).=C2=A0 Identification of these three azures is close to <br><=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr">impossible based on just photos.=C2=A0 It&#39;s a rea=
l mess out there right now!<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D=
"ltr">Specimens collected in Vermont during their 1st butterfly atlas showe=
d <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">only Northern Azure and Cherry Gall Azure, but=
DID NOT show any records <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">of &quot;Spring Azure&=
quot;!=C2=A0 The common early spring flying azure in Vermont is <br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr">now called the Northern Azure (c. lucia).=C2=A0 This is als=
o the case in <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Maine where the most recent public=
ation &quot;Butterflies of Maine and the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Canadia=
n Maritime Provinces&quot; only indicates one species of Azure in the <br><=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr">spring and that is the Northern Azure (they don&#39;t=
show any records of <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Cherry Gall Azure). They st=
ate that &quot;Spring Azure&quot; has NOT BEEN <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">C=
ONFIRMED IN MAINE! Both Maine and Vermont now treat nearly all April <br></=
div><div dir=3D"ltr">and May celastrinas (azures) as Northern Azure (C. luc=
uia).....with a <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">few Cherry Gall Azures in Vermon=
t.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Based on this infor=
mation, it seems likely (or at least possible) that <br></div><div dir=3D"l=
tr">Spring Azures (C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!!=C2=A0 And everyt=
hing <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">flying right now may in fact best be called=
Northern Azure!!=C2=A0 The key <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">problem is that =
Spring Azure is almost impossible to ID from Northern <br></div><div dir=3D=
"ltr">Azure without a specimen!=C2=A0 ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENTIFIED B=
Y <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">OVERLAPPING SCALE PATTERN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. =
Yikes!=C2=A0 Based on this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">alone, we have no ide=
a if &quot;Spring Azures&quot; occur in NH.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br><=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr">THE MAPS IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift and Kauff=
man) DON&#39;T REFLECT <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">THIS.=C2=A0 They show Spr=
ing Azures (C. ladon) as occurring throughout the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr=
">northeast and into southeastern Canada.=C2=A0 THIS IS FALSE as specimens =
from <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Canada have shown that Spring Azures don&#3=
9;t occur there except for a <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">couple of records.<=
br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">The taxonomy is still =
evolving and the range of the Spring Azure is <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">st=
ill a mystery and it&#39;s actually possible there may be other hidden <br>=
</div><div dir=3D"ltr">species out there.=C2=A0 I&#39;ve decided to call my=
early spring azures as just <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">&quot;Azure&quot; a=
nd enter all of my early spring records from April and May in <br></div><di=
v dir=3D"ltr">iNaturalist as &quot;Holarctic Azures&quot; (Celastrina sp.).=
=C2=A0 If you post to this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">list or submit azure =
photos to iNaturalist during these months, you may <br></div><div dir=3D"lt=
r">want to follow this procedure until we figure this mess out!=C2=A0 Summe=
r <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">sightings in late June and July are likely a d=
ifferent species &quot;Summer <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Azure&quot; (c. ne=
glecta), but that&#39;s another problem to sort out, and <br></div><div dir=
=3D"ltr">another story...<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"l=
tr">If anyone out there has any more recent updates on research or opinions=
, <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">it would be interesting to know about.<br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Bryan Pfeiffer does a GREAT J=
OB in discussing this complex on his web <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">site.=
=C2=A0 Highly recommended.=C2=A0 Click on the download PDF file in the firs=
t <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">paragraph.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div=
><div dir=3D"ltr"><a href=3D"https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-t=
he-blues/" rel=3D"nofollow" target=3D"_blank" data-saferedirecturl=3D"https=
://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttps://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/=
getting-the-blues/&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714309895263000&amp;usg=3D=
AOvVaw3UN23ys4aEvQVBVIpweTw7">https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-=
the-blues/</a><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">And if =
you want to dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:<br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div></div></div></div></div></div><div><div><div styl=
e=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:&#39;Helve=
tica Neue&#39;,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;bord=
er-left:1px solid #ccc;padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr"><a href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882" r=
el=3D"nofollow" target=3D"_blank" data-saferedirecturl=3D"https://www.googl=
e.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttps://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id%3D788=
2&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714309895263000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw24WmVZPk-HU=
ySwpK5Er5Ij">What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrin=
a Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)</a>=C2=A0=C2=A0<span style=3D"colo=
r:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:arial;font-size:16px">=C2=A0</span></div></div></d=
iv><div style=3D"font-family:&#39;Helvetica Neue&#39;,Helvetica,Arial,sans-=
serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left:1px solid #ccc;padding-left:=
8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div></div></div></div></div></div><div><div><d=
iv style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:&#3=
9;Helvetica Neue&#39;,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#2628=
2a;border-left:1px solid #ccc;padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div=
><div><br></div><div><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=
<a href=3D"https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017" rel=3D"nofollow" target=3D=
"_blank" data-saferedirecturl=3D"https://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=
=3Dhttps://bugguide.net/node/view/41017&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D171430=
9895263000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw3f0Y-88UC48zlQATBSl5KF">https://bugguide.net/nod=
e/view/41017</a><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Steve=
Mirick<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Bradford, MA<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><b=
r></div></div></div></div></div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family:a=
rial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:&#39;Helvetica Neue&#39;,Hel=
vetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left:1px solid =
#ccc;padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div dir=3D"ltr">-- <br>=
</div><div dir=3D"ltr">You received this message because you are subscribed=
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it <a href=3D"https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/51fde5d5-47b1-4c0b-=
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<b-be44-f1d204a9bc70...></a>.<br></div></div></div></div></div></d=
iv></blockquote></div>

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