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List: MassLep
Date: Sat, 27 Apr 2024 12:55:25 -0400
From: 'billb55' via MassLep <masslep...>
Subject: Re: [MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what are they?

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Thanks Harry, for your help and information!=C2=A0 Many butterfliers in MA =
want to do the right thing with ID and reporting, but are constrained by th=
e MA Butterfly Club's association with NABA, and NABA's insistence that onl=
y their list can be used for the properties that they own (e.g. journal, we=
bsite).=C2=A0 I don't know if/when that will change, but it's good to read =
more about recent published work.=C2=A0 I'm curious - are there any studies=
that disagree with your azure work and support retaining NABA's, or other =
conflicting, classification(s)?Similarly, ongoing updates about tiger swall=
owtail taxonomy on this listserve would be great!Best,Bill BennerSent from =
my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone
-------- Original message --------From: "'<pavulaan...>' via MassLep" <m=
<asslep...> Date: 4/26/24 4:06 PM (GMT-05:00) To: Mass Leps =
<masslep...>, Steve Mirick <smirick...> Subject: Re:=
[MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what are they?=20
Steve, all:Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who =
rely solely on Butterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are=
not aware that the Celastrina genus has been split into several species ov=
er the past 20 or so years.=C2=A0 Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three=
species in North America.=C2=A0 The Pelham catalogue (butterfliesofamerica=
.org) recognizes 11 species, all based on extensive peer-reviewed research.=
=C2=A0 Thus, many folks posting to iNat or BAMONA still think everything fr=
om coast to coast is "C. ladon".=C2=A0 That being said...To address your em=
ail, first, New Hampshire has four Celastrina species: ladon, lucia, neglec=
ta and serotina.=C2=A0 NH does have ladon, or what we are tentatively calli=
ng C. ladon.=C2=A0 This is based on the presence of Azures across the south=
ernmost counties of New Hampshire which have the ladon male dorsal wing sca=
le structure that separates ladon from all other Celastrina species.=C2=A0 =
That "version" of ladon is found throughout southern New England, including=
the two southmost counties in Maine, but there are no records from Vermont=
.=C2=A0 This population of ladon actually has hybrid traits with its northe=
rn cousin, C. lucia.=C2=A0 The ventral sides of ladon and lucia are virtual=
ly impossible to distinguish because each has the same exact range of varia=
tion, from spotted venters to heavily-patterned variants, but the males hav=
e different dorsal wing scale structures.=C2=A0 This is not "variation", as=
both scale types breed true as demonstrated by almost 4 decades of researc=
h.=C2=A0 Both ladon and lucia fly early, and C. serotina emerges about a fu=
ll month later than either.=C2=A0 Serotina is easily distinguished by its w=
hitish venter and well-developed spot pattern.The newest wrench in the gear=
s of Celastrina identification is that the multivoltine ecotype of C. negle=
cta has apparently established itself well into Massachusetts in recent yea=
rs.=C2=A0 It previously only ranged north to around New York City and not a=
cross southern New England.=C2=A0 I've seen a number of images that clearly=
show the multivoltine neglecta spring form in Massachusetts.=C2=A0 The pro=
blem is that these emerge along with ladon and lucia in regions where each =
occurs.=C2=A0 Neglecta stands out from lucia and ladon because it is almost=
pure white beneath with very small spots.=C2=A0 People ask me how the "Sum=
mer" Azure can produce a spring flight.=C2=A0 Apparently, this has been the=
norm throughout the range of multivoltine neglecta - forever.=C2=A0 But we=
only discovered this in the 1990's.=C2=A0 What many people in the south co=
nsider C. ladon, turns out to be spring form neglecta.=C2=A0 This also has =
been proven out, over 4 decades of breeding and fieldwork.=C2=A0 C. neglect=
a is the predominant spring flight in many regions.=C2=A0 C. ladon, on the =
other hand, has a much smaller range than neglecta, as evidenced by examina=
tion of male wings.=C2=A0 When I review iNat records of ladon, probably 95%=
of those images in the U.S. are, in fact, spring brood neglecta.So what ab=
out the traditional Summer Azure in New England?=C2=A0 That is a different =
univoltine (or partly bivoltine) neglecta ecotype that flies only in July a=
nd occasionally in September.=C2=A0 Thus, in southern New England, the mult=
ivoltine neglecta would fly in April, June and August, whereas univoltine (=
or partly bivoltine) neglecta flies in July and occasionally in September.=
=C2=A0 The two ecotypes leap-frog one another, giving the impression that n=
eglecta flies continuously from June into August or occasionally into Septe=
mber.=C2=A0 This is an amazing situation, which we are still working on.The=
recent Butterflies of Maine book, unfortunately, followed a flawed paper b=
y Schmidt & Layberry that discounted C. serotina in Ontario and suggested i=
t might merely be a "late lucia".=C2=A0 Schmidt & Layberry did not recogniz=
e C. ladon in Ontario, of which there are historical records around Pt. Pel=
ee.=C2=A0 What we call ladon, based on the male wing scale structure, does =
occur in southern Maine.=C2=A0 I'm not sure why the authors of the Maine bo=
ok did not consult with either myself or David Wright on Celastrina distrib=
utions.=C2=A0 Schmidt and Layberry also insisted that C. serotina does not =
occur in Ontario, based on what I consider premature assumptions and flawed=
research.=C2=A0 The authors of the Maine book followed suit and did not re=
cognize C. serotina in Maine.=C2=A0 I am presently working on a research pa=
per that will demonstrate the presence of serotina in both Ontario and Main=
e, based on wing color analysis, and will address flaws in the Schmidt & La=
yberry paper.=C2=A0=C2=A0Many of our discoveries with Celastrina come after=
the publication date of many recent guides, including the Kaufman guide.=
=C2=A0 The Kaufman guide has the most updated taxonomy, though the Pelham l=
ist on Butterfliesofamerica.com is the most current and authoritative.=C2=
=A0 Maps in virtually all guides are relatively useless.I am attaching pape=
rs which are more recent, but most folks are not aware of.=C2=A0 The ranges=
of ladon and neglecta are clearly delineated.=C2=A0 Dave Wright and Gordon=
Pratt performed an extensive electrophosesis-based analysis of North Ameri=
can Celastrina populations, yet unpublished that support our conclusions, a=
s reflected in the 2023 Pelham Catalogue.=C2=A0 The team of Nick Grishin is=
currently performing extensive allozyme studies of all North American popu=
lations, that hope to settle the taxonomic issues.=C2=A0 We are also explor=
ing the presence of at least one, but possibly two new species in the easte=
rn U.S.=C2=A0That Schmidt & Layberry paper can be found at:=C2=A0What Azure=
blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidop=
tera, Lycaenidae)=C2=A0 However, I urge readers to take great caution in ac=
cepting what is published in this paper.=C2=A0 Neither author consulted wit=
h Dave Wright or myself to hash over some of the questions they posed.=C2=
=A0 The paper is flawed, and I will address this in a paper in work, demons=
trating C. serotina in Ontario and Maine.In the meantime, I am attaching my=
most recent papers that should help answer some questions.=C2=A0 I welcome=
questions and inquiries!Harry Pavulaan=C2=A0
=20
=20
=20
=20
=20
On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve=
Mirick <smirick...> wrote:
=20
=20
=20
I've noticed that several butterfly folks out there are cal=
ling the azures flying around right now (April & May) "Spring Azures" (cela=
strina ladon) and entering them as such in iNaturalist.=C2=A0 It used to be=
that all early spring azures in the northeast were called "Spring Azures",=
but current research suggests that there are between 2 and 3 species of Az=
ures in April and May in New Hampshire.=C2=A0 These include the confusingly=
named (and possibly non-occurring) Spring Azure (celastrina ladon), the No=
rthern Azure (celastrina lucia), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure (celas=
trina serotina).=C2=A0 Identification of these three azures is close to imp=
ossible based on just photos.=C2=A0 It's a real mess out there right now!Sp=
ecimens collected in Vermont during their 1st butterfly atlas showed only N=
orthern Azure and Cherry Gall Azure, but DID NOT show any records of "Sprin=
g Azure"!=C2=A0 The common early spring flying azure in Vermont is now call=
ed the Northern Azure (c. lucia).=C2=A0 This is also the case in Maine wher=
e the most recent publication "Butterflies of Maine and the Canadian Mariti=
me Provinces" only indicates one species of Azure in the spring and that is=
the Northern Azure (they don't show any records of Cherry Gall Azure). The=
y state that "Spring Azure" has NOT BEEN CONFIRMED IN MAINE! Both Maine and=
Vermont now treat nearly all April and May celastrinas (azures) as Norther=
n Azure (C. lucuia).....with a few Cherry Gall Azures in Vermont.Based on t=
his information, it seems likely (or at least possible) that Spring Azures =
(C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!!=C2=A0 And everything flying right =
now may in fact best be called Northern Azure!!=C2=A0 The key problem is th=
at Spring Azure is almost impossible to ID from Northern Azure without a sp=
ecimen!=C2=A0 ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENTIFIED BY OVERLAPPING SCALE PATT=
ERN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. Yikes!=C2=A0 Based on this alone, we have no idea i=
f "Spring Azures" occur in NH.THE MAPS IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift a=
nd Kauffman) DON'T REFLECT THIS.=C2=A0 They show Spring Azures (C. ladon) a=
s occurring throughout the northeast and into southeastern Canada.=C2=A0 TH=
IS IS FALSE as specimens from Canada have shown that Spring Azures don't oc=
cur there except for a couple of records.The taxonomy is still evolving and=
the range of the Spring Azure is still a mystery and it's actually possibl=
e there may be other hidden species out there.=C2=A0 I've decided to call m=
y early spring azures as just "Azure" and enter all of my early spring reco=
rds from April and May in iNaturalist as "Holarctic Azures" (Celastrina sp.=
).=C2=A0 If you post to this list or submit azure photos to iNaturalist dur=
ing these months, you may want to follow this procedure until we figure thi=
s mess out!=C2=A0 Summer sightings in late June and July are likely a diffe=
rent species "Summer Azure" (c. neglecta), but that's another problem to so=
rt out, and another story...If anyone out there has any more recent updates=
on research or opinions, it would be interesting to know about.Bryan Pfeif=
fer does a GREAT JOB in discussing this complex on his web site.=C2=A0 High=
ly recommended.=C2=A0 Click on the download PDF file in the first paragraph=
.https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-the-blues/And if you want to =
dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:What Azure blues occur =
in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaeni=
dae)=C2=A0=C2=A0=C2=A0https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017Steve MirickBradf=
ord, MA-- You received this message because you are subscribed to the Googl=
e Groups "MassLep" group.To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving =
emails from it, send an email to masslep+<unsubscribe...> vi=
ew this discussion on the web visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/massl=
ep/<51fde5d5-47b1-4c0b-be44-f1d204a9bc70...>
=20
=20



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<html><head><meta http-equiv=3D"Content-Type" content=3D"text/html; charset=
=3DUTF-8"></head><body dir=3D"auto"><div dir=3D"auto">Thanks Harry, for you=
r help and information!&nbsp; Many butterfliers in MA want to do the right =
thing with ID and reporting, but are constrained by the MA Butterfly Club's=
association with NABA, and NABA's insistence that only their list can be u=
sed for the properties that they own (e.g. journal, website).&nbsp; I don't=
know if/when that will change, but it's good to read more about recent pub=
lished work.&nbsp; I'm curious - are there any studies that disagree with y=
our azure work and support retaining NABA's, or other conflicting, classifi=
cation(s)?</div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto">Similarly, on=
going updates about tiger swallowtail taxonomy on this listserve would be g=
reat!</div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto">Best,</div><div di=
r=3D"auto">Bill Benner</div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto"><=
br></div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div id=3D"composer_signature" dir=3D"=
auto"><div style=3D"font-size:12px;color:#575757" dir=3D"auto">Sent from my=
Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone</div></div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div>=
<div><br></div><div align=3D"left" dir=3D"auto" style=3D"font-size:100%;col=
or:#000000"><div>-------- Original message --------</div><div>From: "'pavul=
<aan...>' via MassLep" &lt;<masslep...>&gt; </div><div>Date:=
4/26/24 4:06 PM (GMT-05:00) </div><div>To: Mass Leps &lt;masslep@googleg=
roups.com&gt;, Steve Mirick &lt;<smirick...>&gt; </div><div>Subject:=
Re: [MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what are they? </div><div><br></d=
iv></div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px;" class=3D"ydp5ed0c=
36eyahoo-style-wrap"><div></div>
<div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr">Steve, all:</div><div data-s=
etdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr=
">Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who rely solely on Bu=
tterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are not aware that t=
he <i>Celastrina</i> genus has been split into several species over the pas=
t 20 or so years.&nbsp; Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three species i=
n North America.&nbsp; The Pelham catalogue (butterfliesofamerica.org) reco=
gnizes 11 species, all based on extensive peer-reviewed research.&nbsp; Thu=
s, many folks posting to iNat or BAMONA still think everything from coast t=
o coast is "<i>C. ladon</i>".&nbsp; That being said...</div><div data-setdi=
r=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr">To=
address your email, first, New Hampshire has four <i>Celastrina </i>specie=
s: <i>ladon, lucia, neglecta</i> and <i>serotina</i>.&nbsp; NH does have <i=
>ladon</i>, or what we are tentatively calling <i>C. ladon</i>.&nbsp; This =
is based on the presence of Azures across the southernmost counties of New =
Hampshire which have the <i>ladon </i>male dorsal wing scale structure that=
separates <i>ladon </i>from all other <i>Celastrina </i>species.&nbsp; Tha=
t "version" of <i>ladon</i> is found throughout southern New England, inclu=
ding the two southmost counties in Maine, but there are no records from Ver=
mont.&nbsp; This population of <i>ladon </i>actually has hybrid traits with=
its northern cousin, <i>C. lucia</i>.&nbsp; The ventral sides of <i>ladon =
</i>and <i>lucia </i>are virtually impossible to distinguish because each h=
as the same exact range of variation, from spotted venters to heavily-patte=
rned variants, but the males have different dorsal wing scale structures.&n=
bsp; This is not "variation", as both scale types breed true as demonstrate=
d by almost 4 decades of research.&nbsp; Both <i>ladon </i>and <i>lucia </i=
>fly early, and <i>C. serotina</i> emerges about a full month later than ei=
ther.&nbsp; <i>Serotina </i>is easily distinguished by its whitish venter a=
nd well-developed spot pattern.</div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr"=
><br></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr">The newest wrench in the =
gears of <i>Celastrina </i>identification is that the multivoltine ecotype =
of <i>C. neglecta</i> has apparently established itself well into Massachus=
etts in recent years.&nbsp; It previously only ranged north to around New Y=
ork City and not across southern New England.&nbsp; I've seen a number of i=
mages that clearly show the multivoltine <i>neglecta </i>spring form in Mas=
sachusetts.&nbsp; The problem is that these emerge along with <i>ladon </i>=
and <i>lucia </i>in regions where each occurs.&nbsp; <i>Neglecta </i>stands=
out from <i>lucia </i>and <i>ladon </i>because it is almost pure white ben=
eath with very small spots.&nbsp; People ask me how the "Summer" Azure can =
produce a spring flight.&nbsp; Apparently, this has been the norm throughou=
t the range of <u>multivoltine</u> <i>neglecta </i>- forever.&nbsp; But we =
only discovered this in the 1990's.&nbsp; What many people in the south con=
sider <i>C. ladon</i>, turns out to be spring form <i>neglecta</i>.&nbsp; T=
his also has been proven out, over 4 decades of breeding and fieldwork.&nbs=
p; <i>C. neglecta</i> is the predominant spring flight in many regions.&nbs=
p; <i>C. ladon</i>, on the other hand, has a much smaller range than <i>neg=
lecta</i>, as evidenced by examination of male wings.&nbsp; When I review i=
Nat records of <i>ladon</i>, probably 95% of those images in the U.S. are, =
in fact, spring brood <i>neglecta</i>.</div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=
=3D"ltr"><br></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr">So what about the=
traditional Summer Azure in New England?&nbsp; That is a different univolt=
ine (or partly bivoltine) <i>neglecta </i>ecotype that flies only in July a=
nd occasionally in September.&nbsp; Thus, in southern New England, the mult=
ivoltine <i>neglecta </i>would fly in April, June and August, whereas univo=
ltine (or partly bivoltine) <i>neglecta </i>flies in July and occasionally =
in September.&nbsp; The two ecotypes leap-frog one another, giving the impr=
ession that <i>neglecta </i>flies continuously from June into August or occ=
asionally into September.&nbsp; This is an amazing situation, which we are =
still working on.</div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><di=
v data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr">The recent Butterflies of Maine book, u=
nfortunately, followed a flawed paper by Schmidt &amp; Layberry that discou=
nted <i>C. serotina</i> in Ontario and suggested it might merely be a "late=
<i>lucia</i>".&nbsp; Schmidt &amp; Layberry did not recognize <i>C. ladon<=
/i> in Ontario, of which there are historical records around Pt. Pelee.&nbs=
p; What we call <i>ladon</i>, based on the male wing scale structure, does =
occur in southern Maine.&nbsp; I'm not sure why the authors of the Maine bo=
ok did not consult with either myself or David Wright on <i>Celastrina </i>=
distributions.&nbsp; Schmidt and Layberry also insisted that <i>C. serotina=
</i> does not occur in Ontario, based on what I consider premature assumpti=
ons and flawed research.&nbsp; The authors of the Maine book followed suit =
and did not recognize <i>C. serotina</i> in Maine.&nbsp; I am presently wor=
king on a research paper that will demonstrate the presence of <i>serotina =
</i>in both Ontario and Maine, based on wing color analysis, and will addre=
ss flaws in the Schmidt &amp; Layberry paper.&nbsp;&nbsp;</div><div data-se=
tdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr"=
>Many of our discoveries with <i>Celastrina </i>come after the publication =
date of many recent guides, including the Kaufman guide.&nbsp; The Kaufman =
guide has the most updated taxonomy, though the Pelham list on Butterflieso=
famerica.com is the most current and authoritative.&nbsp; Maps in virtually=
all guides are relatively useless.</div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"=
ltr"><br></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr">I am attaching papers=
which are more recent, but most folks are not aware of.&nbsp; The ranges o=
f <i>ladon </i>and <i>neglecta </i>are clearly delineated.&nbsp; Dave Wrigh=
t and Gordon Pratt performed an extensive electrophosesis-based analysis of=
North American <i>Celastrina </i>populations, yet unpublished that support=
our conclusions, as reflected in the 2023 Pelham Catalogue.&nbsp; The team=
of Nick Grishin is currently performing extensive allozyme studies of all =
North American populations, that hope to settle the taxonomic issues.&nbsp;=
We are also exploring the presence of at least one, but possibly two new s=
pecies in the eastern U.S.&nbsp;</div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr=
"><br></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr">That Schmidt &amp; Laybe=
rry paper can be found at:&nbsp;<span><a rel=3D"nofollow" style=3D"color: r=
gb(25, 106, 212); text-decoration-line: underline; font-family: Helvetica N=
eue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;" class=3D"ydpd9851bceenhancr_card_501256=
0651" href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882">What Azur=
e blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepido=
ptera, Lycaenidae)</a><span style=3D"color: rgb(38, 40, 42); font-family: H=
elvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">&nbsp; However, I urge reader=
s to take great caution in accepting what is published in this paper.&nbsp;=
Neither author consulted with Dave Wright or myself to hash over some of t=
he questions they posed.&nbsp; The paper is flawed, and I will address this=
in a paper in work, demonstrating <i>C. serotin</i>a in Ontario and Maine.=
</span></span></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr"><span><span styl=
e=3D"color: rgb(38, 40, 42); font-family: Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial,=
sans-serif;"><br></span></span></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr=
"><span><span style=3D"color: rgb(38, 40, 42); font-family: Helvetica Neue,=
Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">In the meantime, I am attaching my most rec=
ent papers that should help answer some questions.&nbsp; I welcome question=
s and inquiries!</span></span></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr">=
<span><span style=3D"color: rgb(38, 40, 42); font-family: Helvetica Neue, H=
elvetica, Arial, sans-serif;"><br></span></span></div><div data-setdir=3D"f=
alse" dir=3D"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color: rgb(38, 40, 42); font-family:=
Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;">Harry Pavulaan</span></span=
></div><div data-setdir=3D"false" dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div data-setdir=3D=
"false" dir=3D"ltr">&nbsp;</div><div><br></div>
=20
</div><div class=3D"ydp6b4884cfyahoo_quoted" id=3D"ydp6b4884cfyahoo=
_quoted_5113578798"><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px;" class=
=3D"ydp6b4884cfyahoo-style-wrap">
<div style=3D"font-family:'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, s=
ans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;">
=20
<div>
On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve=
Mirick &lt;<smirick...>&gt; wrote:
</div>
</div><div data-split-quote-node=3D"true" class=3D"ydp6b488=
4cfinline_reply_quote_container" style=3D"font-family:'Helvetica Neue', Hel=
vetica, Arial, sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left: 1px sol=
id #ccc;padding-left: 8px;margin: 0px 0px 0px 8px">
<div><br></div><div><br></div>
<div><div dir=3D"ltr">I've noticed that several butterfly f=
olks out there are calling the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">azures flying aro=
und right now (April &amp; May) "Spring Azures" (celastrina <br></div><div =
dir=3D"ltr">ladon) and entering them as such in iNaturalist.&nbsp; It used =
to be that all <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">early spring azures in the northe=
ast were called "Spring Azures", but <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">current res=
earch suggests that there are between 2 and 3 species of <br></div><div dir=
=3D"ltr">Azures in April and May in New Hampshire.&nbsp; These include the =
confusingly <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">named (and possibly non-occurring) S=
pring Azure (celastrina ladon), the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Northern Azu=
re (celastrina lucia), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure <br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr">(celastrina serotina).&nbsp; Identification of these three azure=
s is close to <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">impossible based on just photos.&n=
bsp; It's a real mess out there right now!<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></=
div><div dir=3D"ltr">Specimens collected in Vermont during their 1st butter=
fly atlas showed <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">only Northern Azure and Cherry =
Gall Azure, but DID NOT show any records <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">of "Spr=
ing Azure"!&nbsp; The common early spring flying azure in Vermont is <br></=
div><div dir=3D"ltr">now called the Northern Azure (c. lucia).&nbsp; This i=
s also the case in <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Maine where the most recent p=
ublication "Butterflies of Maine and the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Canadia=
n Maritime Provinces" only indicates one species of Azure in the <br></div>=
<div dir=3D"ltr">spring and that is the Northern Azure (they don't show any=
records of <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Cherry Gall Azure). They state that =
"Spring Azure" has NOT BEEN <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">CONFIRMED IN MAINE! =
Both Maine and Vermont now treat nearly all April <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr=
">and May celastrinas (azures) as Northern Azure (C. lucuia).....with a <br=
></div><div dir=3D"ltr">few Cherry Gall Azures in Vermont.<br></div><div di=
r=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Based on this information, it seems li=
kely (or at least possible) that <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Spring Azures (=
C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!!&nbsp; And everything <br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr">flying right now may in fact best be called Northern Azure!!&n=
bsp; The key <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">problem is that Spring Azure is alm=
ost impossible to ID from Northern <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Azure without=
a specimen!&nbsp; ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENTIFIED BY <br></div><div di=
r=3D"ltr">OVERLAPPING SCALE PATTERN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. Yikes!&nbsp; Based =
on this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">alone, we have no idea if "Spring Azures=
" occur in NH.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">THE MAP=
S IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift and Kauffman) DON'T REFLECT <br></div>=
<div dir=3D"ltr">THIS.&nbsp; They show Spring Azures (C. ladon) as occurrin=
g throughout the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">northeast and into southeastern=
Canada.&nbsp; THIS IS FALSE as specimens from <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">C=
anada have shown that Spring Azures don't occur there except for a <br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr">couple of records.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr">The taxonomy is still evolving and the range of the Spring =
Azure is <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">still a mystery and it's actually possi=
ble there may be other hidden <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">species out there.=
&nbsp; I've decided to call my early spring azures as just <br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr">"Azure" and enter all of my early spring records from April and =
May in <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">iNaturalist as "Holarctic Azures" (Celast=
rina sp.).&nbsp; If you post to this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">list or sub=
mit azure photos to iNaturalist during these months, you may <br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr">want to follow this procedure until we figure this mess out!&n=
bsp; Summer <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">sightings in late June and July are =
likely a different species "Summer <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Azure" (c. ne=
glecta), but that's another problem to sort out, and <br></div><div dir=3D"=
ltr">another story...<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=
If anyone out there has any more recent updates on research or opinions, <b=
r></div><div dir=3D"ltr">it would be interesting to know about.<br></div><d=
iv dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Bryan Pfeiffer does a GREAT JOB i=
n discussing this complex on his web <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">site.&nbsp;=
Highly recommended.&nbsp; Click on the download PDF file in the first <br>=
</div><div dir=3D"ltr">paragraph.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div =
dir=3D"ltr"><a rel=3D"nofollow" href=3D"https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/0=
2/getting-the-blues/">https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-the-blue=
s/</a><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">And if you want=
to dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:<br></div><div dir=
=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><a class=3D"enhancr_card_5012560651" re=
l=3D"nofollow" href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882">=
What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt specie=
s (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<span style=3D"color: rgb(0, 0, =
0); font-family: arial; font-size: 16px;">&nbsp;</span></div></div></div><d=
iv data-split-quote-node=3D"true" class=3D"ydp6b4884cfinline_reply_quote_co=
ntainer" style=3D"font-family:'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-seri=
f;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left: 1px solid #ccc;padding-left: 8p=
x;margin: 0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div><br></div><div><br></div><div dir=3D"l=
tr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><a rel=3D"nofollow" href=3D"https://bugguide=
.net/node/view/41017">https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017</a><br></div><di=
v dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Steve Mirick<br></div><div dir=3D"=
ltr">Bradford, MA<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">-- <=
br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">You received this message because you are subscri=
bed to the Google Groups "MassLep" group.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">To unsu=
bscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to=
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is discussion on the web visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/51=
<fde5d5-47b1-4c0b-be44-f1d204a9bc70...><br></div></div>
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