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Date: Tue, 30 Apr 2024 04:52:37 -0700 (PDT)
From: 'John Calhoun' via MassLep <masslep...>
Subject: Re: [MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what are they?

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Sorry, everyone, for the similar postings.=20

I originally drafted my comments in Word and copied them over to the group,=
=20
but this apparently brought some formatting issues that Google didn't like,=
=20
so it appears that my first posts were held up in the system. The same=20
thing happened when I submitted a similar post to NHButterfly, and Steve=20
had to physically release it. Thinking that my original posts to MassLep=20
were lost, I posted again using the slightly different comments I sent to=
=20
NHButterfly. In the end, all three of my posts to MassLeps were released,=
=20
as well as the one to NHButterfly.=20

I suppose I should have waited it out a bit longer before posting more=20
comments! Again, I apologize for the confusion. =20

John Calhoun =20

On Tuesday, April 30, 2024 at 6:16:56=E2=80=AFAM UTC-4 John Calhoun wrote:

> As a coauthor of the recent Maine and Maritimes butterfly book, I would l=
ike=20
> to respond to some points in Harry Pavulaan=E2=80=99s discussion of *Cela=
strina*.
>
> Although Harry is quick to criticize our treatment of *Celastrina* in the=
book,=20
> we made a concerted effort to recognize that other species may occur in=
=20
> the region. We state that we "tentatively" follow the arrangement of Schm=
idt=20
> and Layberry (2016), and concede that "As the understanding of *C*
> *elastrina* taxonomy improves, other cryptic species (such as the Cherry =
Gall=20
> Azure) may be detected here." We also include a discussion of the possibl=
e=20
> presence of the Spring Azure and Cherry Gall Azure in Maine in the sectio=
n=20
> =E2=80=9CButterflies of Possible Occurrence=E2=80=9D at the back of the b=
ook, where we=20
> note that further study is needed to understand the status of such phenot=
ypes.=20
> We even state that =E2=80=9CIt is possible that the Cherry Gall Azure wil=
l be=20
> confirmed in our region.=E2=80=9D We were fully aware that there are diff=
erent=20
> interpretations about the various phenotypes that occur in Maine, and=20
> admit that our treatment will not necessarily stand the test of time. Thi=
s=20
> is also true of all the various studies out there, as well as those to=20
> come.
> =20
> Harry also questions why we did not consult with him or David Wright =E2=
=80=93 but we=20
> actually did. The treatment of *Celastrina* in our book was fully reviewe=
d=20
> by David. Notice that the *C. neglecta *account includes the citation =E2=
=80=9CD.=20
> M. Wright, pers. comm. to J. Calhoun.=E2=80=9D It was David who suggested=
that=20
> the =E2=80=9CSpring Azures=E2=80=9D in southern Maine are possibly just N=
orthern Azures=20
> that present Spring Azure traits, =E2=80=9Cperhaps the result of past gen=
etic=20
> introgression from the Spring Azure at the northern limits of its range."=
=20
> David also reviewed the entire book prior to publication.
> =20
> We attempted to present a reasonable treatment of *Celastrina*, but there=
are=20
> so many differing opinions about this group that no matter what is writte=
n,=20
> someone will disagree. In fact, a recent paper titled =E2=80=9CA genetic =
atlas=20
> for the butterflies of continental Canada and the United States=E2=80=9D =
(2024,=20
> PLoS ONE 19(4)) suggests that all North American *Celastrina* represent=
=20
> one species! However, I was told that not all the authors of this paper=
=20
> approve of that conclusion, so there can even be disagreement among coaut=
hors=20
> of individual publications.
> =20
> I think we need to be careful not to suggest that our own opinions are th=
e only=20
> correct ones. In the end, it=E2=80=99s all about personal experience and =
interpretation.=20
> We must each decide which treatment to follow and forge ahead. I=20
> personally await extensive genomic analyses of all the various phenotypes=
,=20
> cross-referenced with biology and morphology, but that may be years away.=
=20
> Nonetheless, even those results will be open to interpretation.
> =20
> Finally, one additional point needs to be clarified. Harry states that "S=
chmidt=20
> & Layberry did not recognize *C. ladon* in Ontario." In fact, these=20
> authors mention the discovery of several museum specimens of this species=
=20
> from Ontario, listing them in the text, and even figuring two of them.=20
> They ultimately state that =E2=80=9C*Celastrina ladon* is therefore confi=
rmed as=20
> part of the Canadian fauna for the first time. Although other literature=
=20
> and even photo records may exist, voucher specimens are needed to verify=
=20
> identification, at least until phenotypic variation and distribution of *=
C.=20
> ladon* in southern Ontario is better documented.=E2=80=9D
> =20
> Thanks for reading,
> =20
> John Calhoun
>
> On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 4:06:02=E2=80=AFPM UTC-4 <pavu......> wro=
te:
>
>> Steve, all:
>>
>> Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who rely solely on=
=20
>> Butterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are not aware t=
hat=20
>> the *Celastrina* genus has been split into several species over the past=
=20
>> 20 or so years. Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three species in No=
rth=20
>> America. The Pelham catalogue (butterfliesofamerica.org) recognizes 11=
=20
>> species, all based on extensive peer-reviewed research. Thus, many folk=
s=20
>> posting to iNat or BAMONA still think everything from coast to coast is =
"*C.=20
>> ladon*". That being said...
>>
>> To address your email, first, New Hampshire has four *Celastrina *specie=
s:=20
>> *ladon, lucia, neglecta* and *serotina*. NH does have *ladon*, or what=
=20
>> we are tentatively calling *C. ladon*. This is based on the presence of=
=20
>> Azures across the southernmost counties of New Hampshire which have the =
*ladon=20
>> *male dorsal wing scale structure that separates *ladon *from all other =
*Celastrina=20
>> *species. That "version" of *ladon* is found throughout southern New=20
>> England, including the two southmost counties in Maine, but there are no=
=20
>> records from Vermont. This population of *ladon *actually has hybrid=20
>> traits with its northern cousin, *C. lucia*. The ventral sides of *lado=
n=20
>> *and *lucia *are virtually impossible to distinguish because each has=20
>> the same exact range of variation, from spotted venters to=20
>> heavily-patterned variants, but the males have different dorsal wing sca=
le=20
>> structures. This is not "variation", as both scale types breed true as=
=20
>> demonstrated by almost 4 decades of research. Both *ladon *and *lucia *=
fly=20
>> early, and *C. serotina* emerges about a full month later than either. =
*Serotina=20
>> *is easily distinguished by its whitish venter and well-developed spot=
=20
>> pattern.
>>
>> The newest wrench in the gears of *Celastrina *identification is that=20
>> the multivoltine ecotype of *C. neglecta* has apparently established=20
>> itself well into Massachusetts in recent years. It previously only rang=
ed=20
>> north to around New York City and not across southern New England. I've=
=20
>> seen a number of images that clearly show the multivoltine *neglecta *sp=
ring=20
>> form in Massachusetts. The problem is that these emerge along with *lad=
on=20
>> *and *lucia *in regions where each occurs. *Neglecta *stands out from *=
lucia=20
>> *and *ladon *because it is almost pure white beneath with very small=20
>> spots. People ask me how the "Summer" Azure can produce a spring flight=
. =20
>> Apparently, this has been the norm throughout the range of *multivoltine=
* *neglecta=20
>> *- forever. But we only discovered this in the 1990's. What many=20
>> people in the south consider *C. ladon*, turns out to be spring form=20
>> *neglecta*. This also has been proven out, over 4 decades of breeding=
=20
>> and fieldwork. *C. neglecta* is the predominant spring flight in many=
=20
>> regions. *C. ladon*, on the other hand, has a much smaller range than=
=20
>> *neglecta*, as evidenced by examination of male wings. When I review=20
>> iNat records of *ladon*, probably 95% of those images in the U.S. are,=
=20
>> in fact, spring brood *neglecta*.
>>
>> So what about the traditional Summer Azure in New England? That is a=20
>> different univoltine (or partly bivoltine) *neglecta *ecotype that flies=
=20
>> only in July and occasionally in September. Thus, in southern New Engla=
nd,=20
>> the multivoltine *neglecta *would fly in April, June and August, whereas=
=20
>> univoltine (or partly bivoltine) *neglecta *flies in July and=20
>> occasionally in September. The two ecotypes leap-frog one another, givi=
ng=20
>> the impression that *neglecta *flies continuously from June into August=
=20
>> or occasionally into September. This is an amazing situation, which we =
are=20
>> still working on.
>>
>> The recent Butterflies of Maine book, unfortunately, followed a flawed=
=20
>> paper by Schmidt & Layberry that discounted *C. serotina* in Ontario and=
=20
>> suggested it might merely be a "late *lucia*". Schmidt & Layberry did=
=20
>> not recognize *C. ladon* in Ontario, of which there are historical=20
>> records around Pt. Pelee. What we call *ladon*, based on the male wing=
=20
>> scale structure, does occur in southern Maine. I'm not sure why the=20
>> authors of the Maine book did not consult with either myself or David=20
>> Wright on *Celastrina *distributions. Schmidt and Layberry also=20
>> insisted that *C. serotina* does not occur in Ontario, based on what I=
=20
>> consider premature assumptions and flawed research. The authors of the=
=20
>> Maine book followed suit and did not recognize *C. serotina* in Maine. =
=20
>> I am presently working on a research paper that will demonstrate the=20
>> presence of *serotina *in both Ontario and Maine, based on wing color=20
>> analysis, and will address flaws in the Schmidt & Layberry paper. =20
>>
>> Many of our discoveries with *Celastrina *come after the publication=20
>> date of many recent guides, including the Kaufman guide. The Kaufman gu=
ide=20
>> has the most updated taxonomy, though the Pelham list on=20
>> Butterfliesofamerica.com is the most current and authoritative. Maps in=
=20
>> virtually all guides are relatively useless.
>>
>> I am attaching papers which are more recent, but most folks are not awar=
e=20
>> of. The ranges of *ladon *and *neglecta *are clearly delineated. Dave=
=20
>> Wright and Gordon Pratt performed an extensive electrophosesis-based=20
>> analysis of North American *Celastrina *populations, yet unpublished=20
>> that support our conclusions, as reflected in the 2023 Pelham Catalogue.=
=20
>> The team of Nick Grishin is currently performing extensive allozyme stud=
ies=20
>> of all North American populations, that hope to settle the taxonomic=20
>> issues. We are also exploring the presence of at least one, but possibl=
y=20
>> two new species in the eastern U.S.=20
>>
>> That Schmidt & Layberry paper can be found at: What Azure blues occur in=
=20
>> Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaeni=
dae)=20
>> <https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882> However, I urge=20
>> readers to take great caution in accepting what is published in this=20
>> paper. Neither author consulted with Dave Wright or myself to hash over=
=20
>> some of the questions they posed. The paper is flawed, and I will addre=
ss=20
>> this in a paper in work, demonstrating *C. serotin*a in Ontario and=20
>> Maine.
>>
>> In the meantime, I am attaching my most recent papers that should help=
=20
>> answer some questions. I welcome questions and inquiries!
>>
>> Harry Pavulaan
>>
>> =20
>>
>> On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve Mirick <
>> <smi......> wrote:=20
>> I've noticed that several butterfly folks out there are calling the=20
>> azures flying around right now (April & May) "Spring Azures" (celastrina=
=20
>> ladon) and entering them as such in iNaturalist. It used to be that all=
=20
>> early spring azures in the northeast were called "Spring Azures", but=20
>> current research suggests that there are between 2 and 3 species of=20
>> Azures in April and May in New Hampshire. These include the confusingly=
=20
>> named (and possibly non-occurring) Spring Azure (celastrina ladon), the=
=20
>> Northern Azure (celastrina lucia), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure=
=20
>> (celastrina serotina). Identification of these three azures is close to=
=20
>> impossible based on just photos. It's a real mess out there right now!
>>
>> Specimens collected in Vermont during their 1st butterfly atlas showed=
=20
>> only Northern Azure and Cherry Gall Azure, but DID NOT show any records=
=20
>> of "Spring Azure"! The common early spring flying azure in Vermont is=
=20
>> now called the Northern Azure (c. lucia). This is also the case in=20
>> Maine where the most recent publication "Butterflies of Maine and the=20
>> Canadian Maritime Provinces" only indicates one species of Azure in the=
=20
>> spring and that is the Northern Azure (they don't show any records of=20
>> Cherry Gall Azure). They state that "Spring Azure" has NOT BEEN=20
>> CONFIRMED IN MAINE! Both Maine and Vermont now treat nearly all April=20
>> and May celastrinas (azures) as Northern Azure (C. lucuia).....with a=20
>> few Cherry Gall Azures in Vermont.
>>
>> Based on this information, it seems likely (or at least possible) that=
=20
>> Spring Azures (C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!! And everything=
=20
>> flying right now may in fact best be called Northern Azure!! The key=20
>> problem is that Spring Azure is almost impossible to ID from Northern=20
>> Azure without a specimen! ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENTIFIED BY=20
>> OVERLAPPING SCALE PATTERN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. Yikes! Based on this=20
>> alone, we have no idea if "Spring Azures" occur in NH.
>>
>> THE MAPS IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift and Kauffman) DON'T REFLECT=
=20
>> THIS. They show Spring Azures (C. ladon) as occurring throughout the=20
>> northeast and into southeastern Canada. THIS IS FALSE as specimens from=
=20
>> Canada have shown that Spring Azures don't occur there except for a=20
>> couple of records.
>>
>> The taxonomy is still evolving and the range of the Spring Azure is=20
>> still a mystery and it's actually possible there may be other hidden=20
>> species out there. I've decided to call my early spring azures as just=
=20
>> "Azure" and enter all of my early spring records from April and May in=
=20
>> iNaturalist as "Holarctic Azures" (Celastrina sp.). If you post to this=
=20
>> list or submit azure photos to iNaturalist during these months, you may=
=20
>> want to follow this procedure until we figure this mess out! Summer=20
>> sightings in late June and July are likely a different species "Summer=
=20
>> Azure" (c. neglecta), but that's another problem to sort out, and=20
>> another story...
>>
>> If anyone out there has any more recent updates on research or opinions,=
=20
>> it would be interesting to know about.
>>
>> Bryan Pfeiffer does a GREAT JOB in discussing this complex on his web=20
>> site. Highly recommended. Click on the download PDF file in the first=
=20
>> paragraph.
>>
>> https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-the-blues/
>>
>> And if you want to dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:
>>
>> What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt=20
>> species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)=20
>> <https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882> =20
>>
>>
>>
>> https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017
>>
>> Steve Mirick
>> Bradford, MA
>>
>> --=20
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s=20
>> "MassLep" group.
>> To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send a=
n=20
>> email to masslep+<u......>
>> To view this discussion on the web visit=20
>> https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/51fde5d5-47b1-4c0b-be44-f1d204=
<a9bc70...>
>> .
>>
>

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Sorry, everyone, for the similar postings.=C2=A0<div><br /></div><div>I ori=
ginally drafted my comments in Word and copied them over to the group, but =
this apparently brought some formatting issues that Google didn't like, so =
it appears that my first posts were held up in the system. The same thing h=
appened when I submitted a similar post to NHButterfly, and Steve had to ph=
ysically release it. Thinking that my original posts to MassLep were lost, =
I posted again using the slightly different comments I sent to NHButterfly.=
In the end, all three of my posts to MassLeps were released, as well as th=
e one to NHButterfly.=C2=A0</div><div><br /></div><div>I suppose I should h=
ave waited it out a bit longer before posting more comments! Again, I apolo=
gize for the confusion.=C2=A0 =C2=A0</div><div><br /></div><div>John Calhou=
n=C2=A0 =C2=A0=C2=A0<br /><br /></div><div class=3D"gmail_quote"><div dir=
=3D"auto" class=3D"gmail_attr">On Tuesday, April 30, 2024 at 6:16:56=E2=80=
=AFAM UTC-4 John Calhoun wrote:<br/></div><blockquote class=3D"gmail_quote"=
style=3D"margin: 0 0 0 0.8ex; border-left: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); p=
adding-left: 1ex;"><font size=3D"3"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font=
-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">As a coauthor of the recent Maine and=
Maritimes butterfly book, I would=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,=
46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">like to respond to some po=
ints in Harry Pavulaan=E2=80=99s discussion of=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"c=
olor:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px"><i>Celastrina<=
/i>.</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacin=
g:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:aria=
l;letter-spacing:-0.32px"><br></span></font><div><font size=3D"3"><span sty=
le=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Althoug=
h Harry is quick to criticize our treatment of <i>Celastrina</i> in the=C2=
=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spaci=
ng:-0.32px">book, we made a concerted effort to recognize that other specie=
s may occur=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:aria=
l;letter-spacing:-0.32px">in the region. We state that we &quot;tentatively=
&quot; follow the arrangement of=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46=
,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Schmidt and Layberry (2016),=
and concede that &quot;As the understanding of <i>C</i></span><span style=
=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px"><i>elastr=
ina</i> taxonomy improves, other cryptic species (such as the Cherry=C2=A0<=
/span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-=
0.32px">Gall Azure) may be detected here.&quot; We also include a discussio=
n of the=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;l=
etter-spacing:-0.32px">possible presence of the Spring Azure and Cherry Gal=
l Azure in Maine in the=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font=
-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">section =E2=80=9CButterflies of Possi=
ble Occurrence=E2=80=9D at the back of the book, where=C2=A0</span><span st=
yle=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">we not=
e that further study is needed to understand the status of such=C2=A0</span=
><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32p=
x">phenotypes. We even state that =E2=80=9CIt is possible that the Cherry G=
all Azure=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;=
letter-spacing:-0.32px">will be confirmed in our region.=E2=80=9D We were f=
ully aware that there are=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);fo=
nt-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">different interpretations about the=
various phenotypes that occur in Maine,=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:r=
gb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">and admit that our t=
reatment will not necessarily stand the test of time.=C2=A0</span><span sty=
le=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">This is=
also true of all the various studies out there, as well as those to=C2=A0<=
/span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-=
0.32px">come.</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;lett=
er-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-fa=
mily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46=
,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><br style=3D=
"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"=
><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32p=
x">Harry also questions why we did not consult with him or David Wright =E2=
=80=93 but=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial=
;letter-spacing:-0.32px">we actually did. The treatment of <i>Celastrina</i=
> in our book was fully=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font=
-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">reviewed by David. Notice that the <i=
>C. neglecta </i>account includes the=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(=
46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">citation =E2=80=9CD. M.=
Wright, pers. comm. to J. Calhoun.=E2=80=9D It was David who=C2=A0</span><=
span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px"=
>suggested that the =E2=80=9CSpring Azures=E2=80=9D in southern Maine are p=
ossibly just=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:ari=
al;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Northern Azures that present Spring Azure traits=
, =E2=80=9Cperhaps the result of=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46=
,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">past genetic introgression f=
rom the Spring Azure at the northern limits of=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"c=
olor:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">its range.&quo=
t; David also reviewed the entire book prior to publication.</span><br styl=
e=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:n=
one"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0=
.32px">=C2=A0</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;lett=
er-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-fa=
mily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">We attempted to present a reasonable tre=
atment of <i>Celastrina</i>, but there=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb=
(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">are so many differing =
opinions about this group that no matter what is=C2=A0</span><span style=3D=
"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">written, som=
eone will disagree. In fact, a recent paper titled =E2=80=9CA genetic=C2=A0=
</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:=
-0.32px">atlas for the butterflies of continental Canada and the United Sta=
tes=E2=80=9D=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:ari=
al;letter-spacing:-0.32px">(2024, PLoS ONE 19(4)) suggests that all North A=
merican <i>Celastrina</i>=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);fo=
nt-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">represent one species! However, I w=
as told that not all the authors of this=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:r=
gb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">paper approve of tha=
t conclusion, so there can even be disagreement among=C2=A0</span><span sty=
le=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">coautho=
rs of individual publications.</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-=
family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(=
46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><br style=
=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:no=
ne"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.=
32px">I think we need to be careful not to suggest that our own opinions ar=
e the=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;lett=
er-spacing:-0.32px">only correct ones. In the end, it=E2=80=99s all about p=
ersonal experience and=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-=
family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">interpretation. We must each decide wh=
ich treatment to follow and forge=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,4=
6,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">ahead. I personally await e=
xtensive genomic analyses of all the various=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"col=
or:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">phenotypes, cros=
s-referenced with biology and morphology, but that may be=C2=A0</span><span=
style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">yea=
rs away. Nonetheless, even those results will be open to interpretation.</s=
pan><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32=
px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;lette=
r-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-famil=
y:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46=
,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Finally, one additional poin=
t needs to be clarified. Harry states that=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color=
:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">&quot;Schmidt &amp=
; Layberry did not recognize <i>C. ladon</i> in Ontario.&quot; In fact,=C2=
=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spaci=
ng:-0.32px">these authors mention the discovery of several museum specimens=
of this=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;l=
etter-spacing:-0.32px">species from Ontario, listing them in the text, and =
even figuring two of=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-fa=
mily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">them. They ultimately state that =E2=80=
=9C<i>Celastrina ladon</i> is therefore=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rg=
b(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">confirmed as part of =
the Canadian fauna for the first time. Although other=C2=A0</span><span sty=
le=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">literat=
ure and even photo records may exist, voucher specimens are needed=C2=A0</s=
pan><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.=
32px">to verify identification, at least until phenotypic variation and=C2=
=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spaci=
ng:-0.32px">distribution of <i>C. ladon</i> in southern Ontario is better d=
ocumented.=E2=80=9D</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:aria=
l;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);f=
ont-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><br style=3D"color:rg=
b(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span st=
yle=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Thanks=
for reading,</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;lett=
er-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-fa=
mily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,4=
6,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D=
"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">John Calhoun=
</span></font><br><br></div><div class=3D"gmail_quote"></div><div class=3D"=
gmail_quote"><div dir=3D"auto" class=3D"gmail_attr">On Friday, April 26, 20=
24 at 4:06:02=E2=80=AFPM UTC-4 <a href data-email-masked rel=3D"nofollow">p=
<avu......></a> wrote:<br></div></div><div class=3D"gmail_quote"><blockq=
uote class=3D"gmail_quote" style=3D"margin:0 0 0 0.8ex;border-left:1px soli=
d rgb(204,204,204);padding-left:1ex"><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;f=
ont-size:16px"><div></div>
<div dir=3D"ltr">Steve, all:</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr">Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who rely sol=
ely on Butterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are not awa=
re that the <i>Celastrina</i> genus has been split into several species ove=
r the past 20 or so years.=C2=A0 Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three =
species in North America.=C2=A0 The Pelham catalogue (<a href=3D"http://but=
terfliesofamerica.org" rel=3D"nofollow" target=3D"_blank" data-saferedirect=
url=3D"https://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttp://butterfliesofameri=
ca.org&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714563718202000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw273blO=
wqB2CCL2A7TmmilR">butterfliesofamerica.org</a>) recognizes 11 species, all =
based on extensive peer-reviewed research.=C2=A0 Thus, many folks posting t=
o iNat or BAMONA still think everything from coast to coast is &quot;<i>C. =
ladon</i>&quot;.=C2=A0 That being said...</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr">To address your email, first, New Hampshire has four <i>Cel=
astrina </i>species: <i>ladon, lucia, neglecta</i> and <i>serotina</i>.=C2=
=A0 NH does have <i>ladon</i>, or what we are tentatively calling <i>C. lad=
on</i>.=C2=A0 This is based on the presence of Azures across the southernmo=
st counties of New Hampshire which have the <i>ladon </i>male dorsal wing s=
cale structure that separates <i>ladon </i>from all other <i>Celastrina </i=
>species.=C2=A0 That &quot;version&quot; of <i>ladon</i> is found throughou=
t southern New England, including the two southmost counties in Maine, but =
there are no records from Vermont.=C2=A0 This population of <i>ladon </i>ac=
tually has hybrid traits with its northern cousin, <i>C. lucia</i>.=C2=A0 T=
he ventral sides of <i>ladon </i>and <i>lucia </i>are virtually impossible =
to distinguish because each has the same exact range of variation, from spo=
tted venters to heavily-patterned variants, but the males have different do=
rsal wing scale structures.=C2=A0 This is not &quot;variation&quot;, as bot=
h scale types breed true as demonstrated by almost 4 decades of research.=
=C2=A0 Both <i>ladon </i>and <i>lucia </i>fly early, and <i>C. serotina</i>=
emerges about a full month later than either.=C2=A0 <i>Serotina </i>is eas=
ily distinguished by its whitish venter and well-developed spot pattern.</d=
iv><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">The newest wrench in the gea=
rs of <i>Celastrina </i>identification is that the multivoltine ecotype of =
<i>C. neglecta</i> has apparently established itself well into Massachusett=
s in recent years.=C2=A0 It previously only ranged north to around New York=
City and not across southern New England.=C2=A0 I&#39;ve seen a number of =
images that clearly show the multivoltine <i>neglecta </i>spring form in Ma=
ssachusetts.=C2=A0 The problem is that these emerge along with <i>ladon </i=
>and <i>lucia </i>in regions where each occurs.=C2=A0 <i>Neglecta </i>stand=
s out from <i>lucia </i>and <i>ladon </i>because it is almost pure white be=
neath with very small spots.=C2=A0 People ask me how the &quot;Summer&quot;=
Azure can produce a spring flight.=C2=A0 Apparently, this has been the nor=
m throughout the range of <u>multivoltine</u> <i>neglecta </i>- forever.=C2=
=A0 But we only discovered this in the 1990&#39;s.=C2=A0 What many people i=
n the south consider <i>C. ladon</i>, turns out to be spring form <i>neglec=
ta</i>.=C2=A0 This also has been proven out, over 4 decades of breeding and=
fieldwork.=C2=A0 <i>C. neglecta</i> is the predominant spring flight in ma=
ny regions.=C2=A0 <i>C. ladon</i>, on the other hand, has a much smaller ra=
nge than <i>neglecta</i>, as evidenced by examination of male wings.=C2=A0 =
When I review iNat records of <i>ladon</i>, probably 95% of those images in=
the U.S. are, in fact, spring brood <i>neglecta</i>.</div><div dir=3D"ltr"=
><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">So what about the traditional Summer Azure in N=
ew England?=C2=A0 That is a different univoltine (or partly bivoltine) <i>n=
eglecta </i>ecotype that flies only in July and occasionally in September.=
=C2=A0 Thus, in southern New England, the multivoltine <i>neglecta </i>woul=
d fly in April, June and August, whereas univoltine (or partly bivoltine) <=
i>neglecta </i>flies in July and occasionally in September.=C2=A0 The two e=
cotypes leap-frog one another, giving the impression that <i>neglecta </i>f=
lies continuously from June into August or occasionally into September.=C2=
=A0 This is an amazing situation, which we are still working on.</div><div =
dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">The recent Butterflies of Maine book=
, unfortunately, followed a flawed paper by Schmidt &amp; Layberry that dis=
counted <i>C. serotina</i> in Ontario and suggested it might merely be a &q=
uot;late <i>lucia</i>&quot;.=C2=A0 Schmidt &amp; Layberry did not recognize=
<i>C. ladon</i> in Ontario, of which there are historical records around P=
t. Pelee.=C2=A0 What we call <i>ladon</i>, based on the male wing scale str=
ucture, does occur in southern Maine.=C2=A0 I&#39;m not sure why the author=
s of the Maine book did not consult with either myself or David Wright on <=
i>Celastrina </i>distributions.=C2=A0 Schmidt and Layberry also insisted th=
at <i>C. serotina</i> does not occur in Ontario, based on what I consider p=
remature assumptions and flawed research.=C2=A0 The authors of the Maine bo=
ok followed suit and did not recognize <i>C. serotina</i> in Maine.=C2=A0 I=
am presently working on a research paper that will demonstrate the presenc=
e of <i>serotina </i>in both Ontario and Maine, based on wing color analysi=
s, and will address flaws in the Schmidt &amp; Layberry paper.=C2=A0=C2=A0<=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Many of our discoveries wi=
th <i>Celastrina </i>come after the publication date of many recent guides,=
including the Kaufman guide.=C2=A0 The Kaufman guide has the most updated =
taxonomy, though the Pelham list on Butterfliesofamerica.com is the most cu=
rrent and authoritative.=C2=A0 Maps in virtually all guides are relatively =
useless.</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">I am attaching pa=
pers which are more recent, but most folks are not aware of.=C2=A0 The rang=
es of <i>ladon </i>and <i>neglecta </i>are clearly delineated.=C2=A0 Dave W=
right and Gordon Pratt performed an extensive electrophosesis-based analysi=
s of North American <i>Celastrina </i>populations, yet unpublished that sup=
port our conclusions, as reflected in the 2023 Pelham Catalogue.=C2=A0 The =
team of Nick Grishin is currently performing extensive allozyme studies of =
all North American populations, that hope to settle the taxonomic issues.=
=C2=A0 We are also exploring the presence of at least one, but possibly two=
new species in the eastern U.S.=C2=A0</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr">That Schmidt &amp; Layberry paper can be found at:=C2=A0<span>=
<a href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882" style=3D"col=
or:rgb(25,106,212);text-decoration-line:underline;font-family:Helvetica Neu=
e,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif" rel=3D"nofollow" target=3D"_blank" data-safer=
edirecturl=3D"https://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttps://zookeys.pe=
nsoft.net/articles.php?id%3D7882&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714563718202=
000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw3VWXljGvK0h5lN6J-L9h6i">What Azure blues occur in Canad=
a? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)</a>=
<span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Ari=
al,sans-serif">=C2=A0 However, I urge readers to take great caution in acce=
pting what is published in this paper.=C2=A0 Neither author consulted with =
Dave Wright or myself to hash over some of the questions they posed.=C2=A0 =
The paper is flawed, and I will address this in a paper in work, demonstrat=
ing <i>C. serotin</i>a in Ontario and Maine.</span></span></div><div dir=3D=
"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:Helvetica Neue,H=
elvetica,Arial,sans-serif"><br></span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><span><=
span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Aria=
l,sans-serif">In the meantime, I am attaching my most recent papers that sh=
ould help answer some questions.=C2=A0 I welcome questions and inquiries!</=
span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42)=
;font-family:Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif"><br></span></span><=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:=
Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif">Harry Pavulaan</span></span></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=C2=A0</div><div><br></div>
=20
</div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"></div></=
div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px">
<div style=3D"font-family:&#39;Helvetica Neue&#39;,Helvetica,Ar=
ial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a">
=20
<div>
On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve=
Mirick &lt;<a rel=3D"nofollow"><smi......></a>&gt; wrote:
</div>
</div></div></div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family=
:arial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:&#39;Helvetica Neue&#39;,H=
elvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left:1px soli=
d #ccc;padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div dir=3D"ltr">I&#39=
;ve noticed that several butterfly folks out there are calling the <br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr">azures flying around right now (April &amp; May) &quot;S=
pring Azures&quot; (celastrina <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">ladon) and enteri=
ng them as such in iNaturalist.=C2=A0 It used to be that all <br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr">early spring azures in the northeast were called &quot;Spring =
Azures&quot;, but <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">current research suggests that=
there are between 2 and 3 species of <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Azures in =
April and May in New Hampshire.=C2=A0 These include the confusingly <br></d=
iv><div dir=3D"ltr">named (and possibly non-occurring) Spring Azure (celast=
rina ladon), the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Northern Azure (celastrina luci=
a), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">(celastr=
ina serotina).=C2=A0 Identification of these three azures is close to <br><=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr">impossible based on just photos.=C2=A0 It&#39;s a rea=
l mess out there right now!<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D=
"ltr">Specimens collected in Vermont during their 1st butterfly atlas showe=
d <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">only Northern Azure and Cherry Gall Azure, but=
DID NOT show any records <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">of &quot;Spring Azure&=
quot;!=C2=A0 The common early spring flying azure in Vermont is <br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr">now called the Northern Azure (c. lucia).=C2=A0 This is als=
o the case in <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Maine where the most recent public=
ation &quot;Butterflies of Maine and the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Canadia=
n Maritime Provinces&quot; only indicates one species of Azure in the <br><=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr">spring and that is the Northern Azure (they don&#39;t=
show any records of <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Cherry Gall Azure). They st=
ate that &quot;Spring Azure&quot; has NOT BEEN <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">C=
ONFIRMED IN MAINE! Both Maine and Vermont now treat nearly all April <br></=
div><div dir=3D"ltr">and May celastrinas (azures) as Northern Azure (C. luc=
uia).....with a <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">few Cherry Gall Azures in Vermon=
t.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Based on this infor=
mation, it seems likely (or at least possible) that <br></div><div dir=3D"l=
tr">Spring Azures (C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!!=C2=A0 And everyt=
hing <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">flying right now may in fact best be called=
Northern Azure!!=C2=A0 The key <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">problem is that =
Spring Azure is almost impossible to ID from Northern <br></div><div dir=3D=
"ltr">Azure without a specimen!=C2=A0 ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENTIFIED B=
Y <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">OVERLAPPING SCALE PATTERN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. =
Yikes!=C2=A0 Based on this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">alone, we have no ide=
a if &quot;Spring Azures&quot; occur in NH.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br><=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr">THE MAPS IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift and Kauff=
man) DON&#39;T REFLECT <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">THIS.=C2=A0 They show Spr=
ing Azures (C. ladon) as occurring throughout the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr=
">northeast and into southeastern Canada.=C2=A0 THIS IS FALSE as specimens =
from <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Canada have shown that Spring Azures don&#3=
9;t occur there except for a <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">couple of records.<=
br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">The taxonomy is still =
evolving and the range of the Spring Azure is <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">st=
ill a mystery and it&#39;s actually possible there may be other hidden <br>=
</div><div dir=3D"ltr">species out there.=C2=A0 I&#39;ve decided to call my=
early spring azures as just <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">&quot;Azure&quot; a=
nd enter all of my early spring records from April and May in <br></div><di=
v dir=3D"ltr">iNaturalist as &quot;Holarctic Azures&quot; (Celastrina sp.).=
=C2=A0 If you post to this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">list or submit azure =
photos to iNaturalist during these months, you may <br></div><div dir=3D"lt=
r">want to follow this procedure until we figure this mess out!=C2=A0 Summe=
r <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">sightings in late June and July are likely a d=
ifferent species &quot;Summer <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Azure&quot; (c. ne=
glecta), but that&#39;s another problem to sort out, and <br></div><div dir=
=3D"ltr">another story...<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"l=
tr">If anyone out there has any more recent updates on research or opinions=
, <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">it would be interesting to know about.<br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Bryan Pfeiffer does a GREAT J=
OB in discussing this complex on his web <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">site.=
=C2=A0 Highly recommended.=C2=A0 Click on the download PDF file in the firs=
t <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">paragraph.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div=
><div dir=3D"ltr"><a href=3D"https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-t=
he-blues/" rel=3D"nofollow" target=3D"_blank" data-saferedirecturl=3D"https=
://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttps://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/=
getting-the-blues/&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714563718202000&amp;usg=3D=
AOvVaw3fKMADpWpUkFzjRWeaHf5H">https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-=
the-blues/</a><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">And if =
you want to dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:<br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div></div></div></div></div></div><div><div><div styl=
e=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:&#39;Helve=
tica Neue&#39;,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;bord=
er-left:1px solid #ccc;padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr"><a href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882" r=
el=3D"nofollow" target=3D"_blank" data-saferedirecturl=3D"https://www.googl=
e.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttps://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id%3D788=
2&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714563718202000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw3VWXljGvK0h=
5lN6J-L9h6i">What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrin=
a Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)</a>=C2=A0=C2=A0<span style=3D"colo=
r:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:arial;font-size:16px">=C2=A0</span></div></div></d=
iv><div style=3D"font-family:&#39;Helvetica Neue&#39;,Helvetica,Arial,sans-=
serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left:1px solid #ccc;padding-left:=
8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div></div></div></div></div></div><div><div><d=
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