Jump to :     |    View All Lists    |    FAQ
List: MassLep
Date: Tue, 30 Apr 2024 11:51:11 -0400
From: 'pavulaan' via MassLep <masslep...>
Subject: Re: [MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what are they?

----_com.samsung.android.email_40216545448180
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="UTF-8"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphoneAll:The difficulty with appl=
ying current genomic (DNA) analysis to Celastrina is that it does not work =
separating recently-evolved species, especially eastern Celastrina and many=
of the western Blues.=C2=A0 Species like the Appalachian and Dusky Azure, =
very readily differentiated by their life histories and appearance could be=
seen as one species if only current genomic analysis was applied, and noth=
ing else.=C2=A0 The parts of their genetic makeup that differentiate them h=
ave not yet been found.=C2=A0 The team led by Nick Grishin is working on th=
is.=C2=A0 In the meantime old-fashioned fieldwork is as reliable as ever.=
=C2=A0 In particular, Celastrina serotina has been studied for its life his=
tory, reared and observed by David Wright and myself for over 4 decades.=C2=
=A0 No more fieldwork is needed on those to demonstate that they are a spec=
ies, and eventually the molecular makeup that differentiates them will be r=
evealed.=C2=A0 Thus, my surprise that the Maine Butterfly survey and the On=
tario lepidopterists did not recognize that species as ocurring in those re=
gions from available data.=C2=A0 I have specimens from Maine and Ontario th=
at match the original description from Rhode Island.Harry=C2=A0=C2=A0
-------- Original message --------From: 'John Calhoun' via MassLep <masslep=
@googlegroups.com> Date: 4/30/24 10:15 AM (GMT-05:00) To: MassLep <massle=
<p...> Subject: Re: [MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what =
are they? Sorry, everyone, for the similar postings.=C2=A0I originally draf=
ted my comments in Word and copied them over to the group, but this apparen=
tly brought some formatting issues that Google didn't like, so it appears t=
hat my first posts were held up in the system. The same thing happened when=
I submitted a similar post to NHButterfly, and Steve had to physically rel=
ease it. Thinking that my original posts to MassLep were lost, I posted aga=
in using the slightly different comments I sent to NHButterfly. In the end,=
all three of my posts to MassLeps were released, as well as the one to NHB=
utterfly.=C2=A0I suppose I should have waited it out a bit longer before po=
sting more comments! Again, I apologize for the confusion.=C2=A0 =C2=A0John=
Calhoun=C2=A0 =C2=A0=C2=A0On Tuesday, April 30, 2024 at 6:16:56=E2=80=AFAM=
UTC-4 John Calhoun wrote:As a coauthor of the recent Maine and Maritimes b=
utterfly book, I would=C2=A0like to respond to some points in Harry Pavulaa=
n=E2=80=99s discussion of=C2=A0Celastrina.Although Harry is quick to critic=
ize our treatment of Celastrina in the=C2=A0book, we made a concerted effor=
t to recognize that other species may occur=C2=A0in the region. We state th=
at we "tentatively" follow the arrangement of=C2=A0Schmidt and Layberry (20=
16), and concede that "As the understanding of Celastrina taxonomy improves=
, other cryptic species (such as the Cherry=C2=A0Gall Azure) may be detecte=
d here." We also include a discussion of the=C2=A0possible presence of the =
Spring Azure and Cherry Gall Azure in Maine in the=C2=A0section =E2=80=9CBu=
tterflies of Possible Occurrence=E2=80=9D at the back of the book, where=C2=
=A0we note that further study is needed to understand the status of such=C2=
=A0phenotypes. We even state that =E2=80=9CIt is possible that the Cherry G=
all Azure=C2=A0will be confirmed in our region.=E2=80=9D We were fully awar=
e that there are=C2=A0different interpretations about the various phenotype=
s that occur in Maine,=C2=A0and admit that our treatment will not necessari=
ly stand the test of time.=C2=A0This is also true of all the various studie=
s out there, as well as those to=C2=A0come.=C2=A0=C2=A0Harry also questions=
why we did not consult with him or David Wright =E2=80=93 but=C2=A0we actu=
ally did. The treatment of Celastrina in our book was fully=C2=A0reviewed b=
y David. Notice that the C. neglecta account includes the=C2=A0citation =E2=
=80=9CD. M. Wright, pers. comm. to J. Calhoun.=E2=80=9D It was David who=C2=
=A0suggested that the =E2=80=9CSpring Azures=E2=80=9D in southern Maine are=
possibly just=C2=A0Northern Azures that present Spring Azure traits, =E2=
=80=9Cperhaps the result of=C2=A0past genetic introgression from the Spring=
Azure at the northern limits of=C2=A0its range." David also reviewed the e=
ntire book prior to publication.=C2=A0We attempted to present a reasonable =
treatment of Celastrina, but there=C2=A0are so many differing opinions abou=
t this group that no matter what is=C2=A0written, someone will disagree. In=
fact, a recent paper titled =E2=80=9CA genetic=C2=A0atlas for the butterfl=
ies of continental Canada and the United States=E2=80=9D=C2=A0(2024, PLoS O=
NE 19(4)) suggests that all North American Celastrina=C2=A0represent one sp=
ecies! However, I was told that not all the authors of this=C2=A0paper appr=
ove of that conclusion, so there can even be disagreement among=C2=A0coauth=
ors of individual publications.=C2=A0I think we need to be careful not to s=
uggest that our own opinions are the=C2=A0only correct ones. In the end, it=
=E2=80=99s all about personal experience and=C2=A0interpretation. We must e=
ach decide which treatment to follow and forge=C2=A0ahead. I personally awa=
it extensive genomic analyses of all the various=C2=A0phenotypes, cross-ref=
erenced with biology and morphology, but that may be=C2=A0years away. Nonet=
heless, even those results will be open to interpretation.=C2=A0Finally, on=
e additional point needs to be clarified. Harry states that=C2=A0"Schmidt &=
Layberry did not recognize C. ladon in Ontario." In fact,=C2=A0these autho=
rs mention the discovery of several museum specimens of this=C2=A0species f=
rom Ontario, listing them in the text, and even figuring two of=C2=A0them. =
They ultimately state that =E2=80=9CCelastrina ladon is therefore=C2=A0conf=
irmed as part of the Canadian fauna for the first time. Although other=C2=
=A0literature and even photo records may exist, voucher specimens are neede=
d=C2=A0to verify identification, at least until phenotypic variation and=C2=
=A0distribution of C. ladon in southern Ontario is better documented.=E2=80=
=9D=C2=A0Thanks for reading,=C2=A0John CalhounOn Friday, April 26, 2024 at =
4:06:02=E2=80=AFPM UTC-4 <pavu......> wrote:
Steve, all:Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who =
rely solely on Butterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are=
not aware that the Celastrina genus has been split into several species ov=
er the past 20 or so years.=C2=A0 Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three=
species in North America.=C2=A0 The Pelham catalogue (butterfliesofamerica=
.org) recognizes 11 species, all based on extensive peer-reviewed research.=
=C2=A0 Thus, many folks posting to iNat or BAMONA still think everything fr=
om coast to coast is "C. ladon".=C2=A0 That being said...To address your em=
ail, first, New Hampshire has four Celastrina species: ladon, lucia, neglec=
ta and serotina.=C2=A0 NH does have ladon, or what we are tentatively calli=
ng C. ladon.=C2=A0 This is based on the presence of Azures across the south=
ernmost counties of New Hampshire which have the ladon male dorsal wing sca=
le structure that separates ladon from all other Celastrina species.=C2=A0 =
That "version" of ladon is found throughout southern New England, including=
the two southmost counties in Maine, but there are no records from Vermont=
.=C2=A0 This population of ladon actually has hybrid traits with its northe=
rn cousin, C. lucia.=C2=A0 The ventral sides of ladon and lucia are virtual=
ly impossible to distinguish because each has the same exact range of varia=
tion, from spotted venters to heavily-patterned variants, but the males hav=
e different dorsal wing scale structures.=C2=A0 This is not "variation", as=
both scale types breed true as demonstrated by almost 4 decades of researc=
h.=C2=A0 Both ladon and lucia fly early, and C. serotina emerges about a fu=
ll month later than either.=C2=A0 Serotina is easily distinguished by its w=
hitish venter and well-developed spot pattern.The newest wrench in the gear=
s of Celastrina identification is that the multivoltine ecotype of C. negle=
cta has apparently established itself well into Massachusetts in recent yea=
rs.=C2=A0 It previously only ranged north to around New York City and not a=
cross southern New England.=C2=A0 I've seen a number of images that clearly=
show the multivoltine neglecta spring form in Massachusetts.=C2=A0 The pro=
blem is that these emerge along with ladon and lucia in regions where each =
occurs.=C2=A0 Neglecta stands out from lucia and ladon because it is almost=
pure white beneath with very small spots.=C2=A0 People ask me how the "Sum=
mer" Azure can produce a spring flight.=C2=A0 Apparently, this has been the=
norm throughout the range of multivoltine neglecta - forever.=C2=A0 But we=
only discovered this in the 1990's.=C2=A0 What many people in the south co=
nsider C. ladon, turns out to be spring form neglecta.=C2=A0 This also has =
been proven out, over 4 decades of breeding and fieldwork.=C2=A0 C. neglect=
a is the predominant spring flight in many regions.=C2=A0 C. ladon, on the =
other hand, has a much smaller range than neglecta, as evidenced by examina=
tion of male wings.=C2=A0 When I review iNat records of ladon, probably 95%=
of those images in the U.S. are, in fact, spring brood neglecta.So what ab=
out the traditional Summer Azure in New England?=C2=A0 That is a different =
univoltine (or partly bivoltine) neglecta ecotype that flies only in July a=
nd occasionally in September.=C2=A0 Thus, in southern New England, the mult=
ivoltine neglecta would fly in April, June and August, whereas univoltine (=
or partly bivoltine) neglecta flies in July and occasionally in September.=
=C2=A0 The two ecotypes leap-frog one another, giving the impression that n=
eglecta flies continuously from June into August or occasionally into Septe=
mber.=C2=A0 This is an amazing situation, which we are still working on.The=
recent Butterflies of Maine book, unfortunately, followed a flawed paper b=
y Schmidt & Layberry that discounted C. serotina in Ontario and suggested i=
t might merely be a "late lucia".=C2=A0 Schmidt & Layberry did not recogniz=
e C. ladon in Ontario, of which there are historical records around Pt. Pel=
ee.=C2=A0 What we call ladon, based on the male wing scale structure, does =
occur in southern Maine.=C2=A0 I'm not sure why the authors of the Maine bo=
ok did not consult with either myself or David Wright on Celastrina distrib=
utions.=C2=A0 Schmidt and Layberry also insisted that C. serotina does not =
occur in Ontario, based on what I consider premature assumptions and flawed=
research.=C2=A0 The authors of the Maine book followed suit and did not re=
cognize C. serotina in Maine.=C2=A0 I am presently working on a research pa=
per that will demonstrate the presence of serotina in both Ontario and Main=
e, based on wing color analysis, and will address flaws in the Schmidt & La=
yberry paper.=C2=A0=C2=A0Many of our discoveries with Celastrina come after=
the publication date of many recent guides, including the Kaufman guide.=
=C2=A0 The Kaufman guide has the most updated taxonomy, though the Pelham l=
ist on Butterfliesofamerica.com is the most current and authoritative.=C2=
=A0 Maps in virtually all guides are relatively useless.I am attaching pape=
rs which are more recent, but most folks are not aware of.=C2=A0 The ranges=
of ladon and neglecta are clearly delineated.=C2=A0 Dave Wright and Gordon=
Pratt performed an extensive electrophosesis-based analysis of North Ameri=
can Celastrina populations, yet unpublished that support our conclusions, a=
s reflected in the 2023 Pelham Catalogue.=C2=A0 The team of Nick Grishin is=
currently performing extensive allozyme studies of all North American popu=
lations, that hope to settle the taxonomic issues.=C2=A0 We are also explor=
ing the presence of at least one, but possibly two new species in the easte=
rn U.S.=C2=A0That Schmidt & Layberry paper can be found at:=C2=A0What Azure=
blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidop=
tera, Lycaenidae)=C2=A0 However, I urge readers to take great caution in ac=
cepting what is published in this paper.=C2=A0 Neither author consulted wit=
h Dave Wright or myself to hash over some of the questions they posed.=C2=
=A0 The paper is flawed, and I will address this in a paper in work, demons=
trating C. serotina in Ontario and Maine.In the meantime, I am attaching my=
most recent papers that should help answer some questions.=C2=A0 I welcome=
questions and inquiries!Harry Pavulaan=C2=A0
=20
=20
=20
=20
=20
On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve=
Mirick <smi......> wrote:
=20
I've noticed that several butterfly folks out there are cal=
ling the azures flying around right now (April & May) "Spring Azures" (cela=
strina ladon) and entering them as such in iNaturalist.=C2=A0 It used to be=
that all early spring azures in the northeast were called "Spring Azures",=
but current research suggests that there are between 2 and 3 species of Az=
ures in April and May in New Hampshire.=C2=A0 These include the confusingly=
named (and possibly non-occurring) Spring Azure (celastrina ladon), the No=
rthern Azure (celastrina lucia), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure (celas=
trina serotina).=C2=A0 Identification of these three azures is close to imp=
ossible based on just photos.=C2=A0 It's a real mess out there right now!Sp=
ecimens collected in Vermont during their 1st butterfly atlas showed only N=
orthern Azure and Cherry Gall Azure, but DID NOT show any records of "Sprin=
g Azure"!=C2=A0 The common early spring flying azure in Vermont is now call=
ed the Northern Azure (c. lucia).=C2=A0 This is also the case in Maine wher=
e the most recent publication "Butterflies of Maine and the Canadian Mariti=
me Provinces" only indicates one species of Azure in the spring and that is=
the Northern Azure (they don't show any records of Cherry Gall Azure). The=
y state that "Spring Azure" has NOT BEEN CONFIRMED IN MAINE! Both Maine and=
Vermont now treat nearly all April and May celastrinas (azures) as Norther=
n Azure (C. lucuia).....with a few Cherry Gall Azures in Vermont.Based on t=
his information, it seems likely (or at least possible) that Spring Azures =
(C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!!=C2=A0 And everything flying right =
now may in fact best be called Northern Azure!!=C2=A0 The key problem is th=
at Spring Azure is almost impossible to ID from Northern Azure without a sp=
ecimen!=C2=A0 ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENTIFIED BY OVERLAPPING SCALE PATT=
ERN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. Yikes!=C2=A0 Based on this alone, we have no idea i=
f "Spring Azures" occur in NH.THE MAPS IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift a=
nd Kauffman) DON'T REFLECT THIS.=C2=A0 They show Spring Azures (C. ladon) a=
s occurring throughout the northeast and into southeastern Canada.=C2=A0 TH=
IS IS FALSE as specimens from Canada have shown that Spring Azures don't oc=
cur there except for a couple of records.The taxonomy is still evolving and=
the range of the Spring Azure is still a mystery and it's actually possibl=
e there may be other hidden species out there.=C2=A0 I've decided to call m=
y early spring azures as just "Azure" and enter all of my early spring reco=
rds from April and May in iNaturalist as "Holarctic Azures" (Celastrina sp.=
).=C2=A0 If you post to this list or submit azure photos to iNaturalist dur=
ing these months, you may want to follow this procedure until we figure thi=
s mess out!=C2=A0 Summer sightings in late June and July are likely a diffe=
rent species "Summer Azure" (c. neglecta), but that's another problem to so=
rt out, and another story...If anyone out there has any more recent updates=
on research or opinions, it would be interesting to know about.Bryan Pfeif=
fer does a GREAT JOB in discussing this complex on his web site.=C2=A0 High=
ly recommended.=C2=A0 Click on the download PDF file in the first paragraph=
.https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-the-blues/And if you want to =
dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:What Azure blues occur =
in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaeni=
dae)=C2=A0=C2=A0=C2=A0https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017Steve MirickBradf=
ord, MA-- You received this message because you are subscribed to the Googl=
e Groups "MassLep" group.To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving =
emails from it, send an email to masslep+<u......> view this=
discussion on the web visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/51fd=
<e5d5-47b1-4c0b-be44-f1d204a9bc70...>



--=20
You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "=
MassLep" group.
To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an e=
mail to masslep+<unsubscribe...>
To view this discussion on the web visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/=
masslep/<37608ba6-0d7a-45f0-b28d-b0b67406a181n...>

--=20
You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "=
MassLep" group.
To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an e=
mail to masslep+<unsubscribe...>
To view this discussion on the web visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/=
masslep/<1848717292.3931791.1714492276060...>

----_com.samsung.android.email_40216545448180
Content-Type: text/html; charset="UTF-8"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

<html><head><meta http-equiv=3D"Content-Type" content=3D"text/html; charset=
=3DUTF-8"></head><body dir=3D"auto"><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D=
"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><d=
iv id=3D"composer_signature" dir=3D"auto"><div style=3D"font-size:12px;colo=
r:#575757" dir=3D"auto">Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone</di=
v></div><div dir=3D"auto">All:</div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D=
"auto">The difficulty with applying current genomic (DNA) analysis to Celas=
trina is that it does not work separating recently-evolved species, especia=
lly eastern Celastrina and many of the western Blues.&nbsp; Species like th=
e Appalachian and Dusky Azure, very readily differentiated by their life hi=
stories and appearance could be seen as one species if only current genomic=
analysis was applied, and nothing else.&nbsp; The parts of their genetic m=
akeup that differentiate them have not yet been found.&nbsp; The team led b=
y Nick Grishin is working on this.&nbsp; In the meantime old-fashioned fiel=
dwork is as reliable as ever.&nbsp; In particular, Celastrina serotina has =
been studied for its life history, reared and observed by David Wright and =
myself for over 4 decades.&nbsp; No more fieldwork is needed on those to de=
monstate that they are a species, and eventually the molecular makeup that =
differentiates them will be revealed.&nbsp; Thus, my surprise that the Main=
e Butterfly survey and the Ontario lepidopterists did not recognize that sp=
ecies as ocurring in those regions from available data.&nbsp; I have specim=
ens from Maine and Ontario that match the original description from Rhode I=
sland.</div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto">Harry</div><div d=
ir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto">&nbsp;&nbsp;</div><div><br></div><d=
iv align=3D"left" dir=3D"auto" style=3D"font-size:100%;color:#000000"><div>=
-------- Original message --------</div><div>From: 'John Calhoun' via MassL=
ep &lt;<masslep...>&gt; </div><div>Date: 4/30/24 10:15 AM (GM=
T-05:00) </div><div>To: MassLep &lt;<masslep...>&gt; </div><div=
>Subject: Re: [MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what are they? </div><di=
v><br></div></div>Sorry, everyone, for the similar postings.&nbsp;<div><br>=
</div><div>I originally drafted my comments in Word and copied them over to=
the group, but this apparently brought some formatting issues that Google =
didn't like, so it appears that my first posts were held up in the system. =
The same thing happened when I submitted a similar post to NHButterfly, and=
Steve had to physically release it. Thinking that my original posts to Mas=
sLep were lost, I posted again using the slightly different comments I sent=
to NHButterfly. In the end, all three of my posts to MassLeps were release=
d, as well as the one to NHButterfly.&nbsp;</div><div><br></div><div>I supp=
ose I should have waited it out a bit longer before posting more comments! =
Again, I apologize for the confusion.&nbsp; &nbsp;</div><div><br></div><div=
>John Calhoun&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<br><br></div><div class=3D"gmail_quote"><d=
iv class=3D"gmail_attr" dir=3D"auto">On Tuesday, April 30, 2024 at 6:16:56=
=E2=80=AFAM UTC-4 John Calhoun wrote:<br></div><blockquote style=3D"margin:=
0 0 0 0.8ex; border-left: 1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); padding-left: 1ex;=
" class=3D"gmail_quote"><font size=3D"3"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46)=
;font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">As a coauthor of the recent Main=
e and Maritimes butterfly book, I would&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rg=
b(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">like to respond to so=
me points in Harry Pavulaan=E2=80=99s discussion of&nbsp;</span><span style=
=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px"><i>Celast=
rina</i>.</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-s=
pacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family=
:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px"><br></span></font><div><font size=3D"3"><spa=
n style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Al=
though Harry is quick to criticize our treatment of <i>Celastrina</i> in th=
e&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-s=
pacing:-0.32px">book, we made a concerted effort to recognize that other sp=
ecies may occur&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:=
arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">in the region. We state that we "tentatively"=
follow the arrangement of&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);f=
ont-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Schmidt and Layberry (2016), and c=
oncede that "As the understanding of <i>C</i></span><span style=3D"color:rg=
b(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px"><i>elastrina</i> taxo=
nomy improves, other cryptic species (such as the Cherry&nbsp;</span><span =
style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Gall=
Azure) may be detected here." We also include a discussion of the&nbsp;</s=
pan><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.=
32px">possible presence of the Spring Azure and Cherry Gall Azure in Maine =
in the&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;let=
ter-spacing:-0.32px">section =E2=80=9CButterflies of Possible Occurrence=E2=
=80=9D at the back of the book, where&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(=
46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">we note that further st=
udy is needed to understand the status of such&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"c=
olor:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">phenotypes. We=
even state that =E2=80=9CIt is possible that the Cherry Gall Azure&nbsp;</=
span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0=
.32px">will be confirmed in our region.=E2=80=9D We were fully aware that t=
here are&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;l=
etter-spacing:-0.32px">different interpretations about the various phenotyp=
es that occur in Maine,&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font=
-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">and admit that our treatment will not=
necessarily stand the test of time.&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(4=
6,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">This is also true of all=
the various studies out there, as well as those to&nbsp;</span><span style=
=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">come.</sp=
an><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32p=
x;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter=
-spacing:-0.32px">&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-fami=
ly:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">&nbsp;</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,=
46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"c=
olor:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Harry also que=
stions why we did not consult with him or David Wright =E2=80=93 but&nbsp;<=
/span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-=
0.32px">we actually did. The treatment of <i>Celastrina</i> in our book was=
fully&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;let=
ter-spacing:-0.32px">reviewed by David. Notice that the <i>C. neglecta </i>=
account includes the&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-fa=
mily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">citation =E2=80=9CD. M. Wright, pers. co=
mm. to J. Calhoun.=E2=80=9D It was David who&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"col=
or:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">suggested that t=
he =E2=80=9CSpring Azures=E2=80=9D in southern Maine are possibly just&nbsp=
;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing=
:-0.32px">Northern Azures that present Spring Azure traits, =E2=80=9Cperhap=
s the result of&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:=
arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">past genetic introgression from the Spring Az=
ure at the northern limits of&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46=
);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">its range." David also reviewed=
the entire book prior to publication.</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,4=
6);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"co=
lor:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">&nbsp;</span><b=
r style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;out=
line:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spac=
ing:-0.32px">We attempted to present a reasonable treatment of <i>Celastrin=
a</i>, but there&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family=
:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">are so many differing opinions about this gr=
oup that no matter what is&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);f=
ont-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">written, someone will disagree. In=
fact, a recent paper titled =E2=80=9CA genetic&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"=
color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">atlas for the=
butterflies of continental Canada and the United States=E2=80=9D&nbsp;</sp=
an><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.3=
2px">(2024, PLoS ONE 19(4)) suggests that all North American <i>Celastrina<=
/i>&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter=
-spacing:-0.32px">represent one species! However, I was told that not all t=
he authors of this&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-fami=
ly:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">paper approve of that conclusion, so there=
can even be disagreement among&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,=
46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">coauthors of individual publi=
cations.</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-sp=
acing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:=
arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">&nbsp;</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46)=
;font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"colo=
r:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">I think we need t=
o be careful not to suggest that our own opinions are the&nbsp;</span><span=
style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">onl=
y correct ones. In the end, it=E2=80=99s all about personal experience and&=
nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spa=
cing:-0.32px">interpretation. We must each decide which treatment to follow=
and forge&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial=
;letter-spacing:-0.32px">ahead. I personally await extensive genomic analys=
es of all the various&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-f=
amily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">phenotypes, cross-referenced with biolo=
gy and morphology, but that may be&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,=
46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">years away. Nonetheless, e=
ven those results will be open to interpretation.</span><br style=3D"color:=
rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span =
style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">&nbs=
p;</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:=
-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;=
letter-spacing:-0.32px">Finally, one additional point needs to be clarified=
. Harry states that&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-fam=
ily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">"Schmidt &amp; Layberry did not recognize=
<i>C. ladon</i> in Ontario." In fact,&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb=
(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">these authors mention =
the discovery of several museum specimens of this&nbsp;</span><span style=
=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">species f=
rom Ontario, listing them in the text, and even figuring two of&nbsp;</span=
><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32p=
x">them. They ultimately state that =E2=80=9C<i>Celastrina ladon</i> is the=
refore&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;let=
ter-spacing:-0.32px">confirmed as part of the Canadian fauna for the first =
time. Although other&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-fa=
mily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">literature and even photo records may ex=
ist, voucher specimens are needed&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,4=
6,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">to verify identification, a=
t least until phenotypic variation and&nbsp;</span><span style=3D"color:rgb=
(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">distribution of <i>C. =
ladon</i> in southern Ontario is better documented.=E2=80=9D</span><br styl=
e=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:n=
one"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0=
.32px">&nbsp;</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;lett=
er-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-fa=
mily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Thanks for reading,</span><br style=3D"c=
olor:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><=
span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px"=
>&nbsp;</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spa=
cing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:a=
rial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">John Calhoun</span></font><br><br></div><div c=
lass=3D"gmail_quote"></div><div class=3D"gmail_quote"><div class=3D"gmail_a=
ttr" dir=3D"auto">On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 4:06:02=E2=80=AFPM UTC-4 <a =
rel=3D"nofollow" data-email-masked=3D"" href=3D""><pavu......></a> wrote=
:<br></div></div><div class=3D"gmail_quote"><blockquote style=3D"margin:0 0=
0 0.8ex;border-left:1px solid rgb(204,204,204);padding-left:1ex" class=3D"=
gmail_quote"><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"><div></di=
v>
<div dir=3D"ltr">Steve, all:</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr">Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who rely sol=
ely on Butterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are not awa=
re that the <i>Celastrina</i> genus has been split into several species ove=
r the past 20 or so years.&nbsp; Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three =
species in North America.&nbsp; The Pelham catalogue (<a data-saferedirectu=
rl=3D"https://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttp://butterfliesofameric=
a.org&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714563718202000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw273blOw=
qB2CCL2A7TmmilR" rel=3D"nofollow" href=3D"http://butterfliesofamerica.org">=
butterfliesofamerica.org</a>) recognizes 11 species, all based on extensive=
peer-reviewed research.&nbsp; Thus, many folks posting to iNat or BAMONA s=
till think everything from coast to coast is "<i>C. ladon</i>".&nbsp; That =
being said...</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">To address y=
our email, first, New Hampshire has four <i>Celastrina </i>species: <i>lado=
n, lucia, neglecta</i> and <i>serotina</i>.&nbsp; NH does have <i>ladon</i>=
, or what we are tentatively calling <i>C. ladon</i>.&nbsp; This is based o=
n the presence of Azures across the southernmost counties of New Hampshire =
which have the <i>ladon </i>male dorsal wing scale structure that separates=
<i>ladon </i>from all other <i>Celastrina </i>species.&nbsp; That "version=
" of <i>ladon</i> is found throughout southern New England, including the t=
wo southmost counties in Maine, but there are no records from Vermont.&nbsp=
; This population of <i>ladon </i>actually has hybrid traits with its north=
ern cousin, <i>C. lucia</i>.&nbsp; The ventral sides of <i>ladon </i>and <i=
>lucia </i>are virtually impossible to distinguish because each has the sam=
e exact range of variation, from spotted venters to heavily-patterned varia=
nts, but the males have different dorsal wing scale structures.&nbsp; This =
is not "variation", as both scale types breed true as demonstrated by almos=
t 4 decades of research.&nbsp; Both <i>ladon </i>and <i>lucia </i>fly early=
, and <i>C. serotina</i> emerges about a full month later than either.&nbsp=
; <i>Serotina </i>is easily distinguished by its whitish venter and well-de=
veloped spot pattern.</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">The =
newest wrench in the gears of <i>Celastrina </i>identification is that the =
multivoltine ecotype of <i>C. neglecta</i> has apparently established itsel=
f well into Massachusetts in recent years.&nbsp; It previously only ranged =
north to around New York City and not across southern New England.&nbsp; I'=
ve seen a number of images that clearly show the multivoltine <i>neglecta <=
/i>spring form in Massachusetts.&nbsp; The problem is that these emerge alo=
ng with <i>ladon </i>and <i>lucia </i>in regions where each occurs.&nbsp; <=
i>Neglecta </i>stands out from <i>lucia </i>and <i>ladon </i>because it is =
almost pure white beneath with very small spots.&nbsp; People ask me how th=
e "Summer" Azure can produce a spring flight.&nbsp; Apparently, this has be=
en the norm throughout the range of <u>multivoltine</u> <i>neglecta </i>- f=
orever.&nbsp; But we only discovered this in the 1990's.&nbsp; What many pe=
ople in the south consider <i>C. ladon</i>, turns out to be spring form <i>=
neglecta</i>.&nbsp; This also has been proven out, over 4 decades of breedi=
ng and fieldwork.&nbsp; <i>C. neglecta</i> is the predominant spring flight=
in many regions.&nbsp; <i>C. ladon</i>, on the other hand, has a much smal=
ler range than <i>neglecta</i>, as evidenced by examination of male wings.&=
nbsp; When I review iNat records of <i>ladon</i>, probably 95% of those ima=
ges in the U.S. are, in fact, spring brood <i>neglecta</i>.</div><div dir=
=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">So what about the traditional Summer Az=
ure in New England?&nbsp; That is a different univoltine (or partly bivolti=
ne) <i>neglecta </i>ecotype that flies only in July and occasionally in Sep=
tember.&nbsp; Thus, in southern New England, the multivoltine <i>neglecta <=
/i>would fly in April, June and August, whereas univoltine (or partly bivol=
tine) <i>neglecta </i>flies in July and occasionally in September.&nbsp; Th=
e two ecotypes leap-frog one another, giving the impression that <i>neglect=
a </i>flies continuously from June into August or occasionally into Septemb=
er.&nbsp; This is an amazing situation, which we are still working on.</div=
><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">The recent Butterflies of Main=
e book, unfortunately, followed a flawed paper by Schmidt &amp; Layberry th=
at discounted <i>C. serotina</i> in Ontario and suggested it might merely b=
e a "late <i>lucia</i>".&nbsp; Schmidt &amp; Layberry did not recognize <i>=
C. ladon</i> in Ontario, of which there are historical records around Pt. P=
elee.&nbsp; What we call <i>ladon</i>, based on the male wing scale structu=
re, does occur in southern Maine.&nbsp; I'm not sure why the authors of the=
Maine book did not consult with either myself or David Wright on <i>Celast=
rina </i>distributions.&nbsp; Schmidt and Layberry also insisted that <i>C.=
serotina</i> does not occur in Ontario, based on what I consider premature=
assumptions and flawed research.&nbsp; The authors of the Maine book follo=
wed suit and did not recognize <i>C. serotina</i> in Maine.&nbsp; I am pres=
ently working on a research paper that will demonstrate the presence of <i>=
serotina </i>in both Ontario and Maine, based on wing color analysis, and w=
ill address flaws in the Schmidt &amp; Layberry paper.&nbsp;&nbsp;</div><di=
v dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Many of our discoveries with <i>Ce=
lastrina </i>come after the publication date of many recent guides, includi=
ng the Kaufman guide.&nbsp; The Kaufman guide has the most updated taxonomy=
, though the Pelham list on Butterfliesofamerica.com is the most current an=
d authoritative.&nbsp; Maps in virtually all guides are relatively useless.=
</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">I am attaching papers whi=
ch are more recent, but most folks are not aware of.&nbsp; The ranges of <i=
>ladon </i>and <i>neglecta </i>are clearly delineated.&nbsp; Dave Wright an=
d Gordon Pratt performed an extensive electrophosesis-based analysis of Nor=
th American <i>Celastrina </i>populations, yet unpublished that support our=
conclusions, as reflected in the 2023 Pelham Catalogue.&nbsp; The team of =
Nick Grishin is currently performing extensive allozyme studies of all Nort=
h American populations, that hope to settle the taxonomic issues.&nbsp; We =
are also exploring the presence of at least one, but possibly two new speci=
es in the eastern U.S.&nbsp;</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"lt=
r">That Schmidt &amp; Layberry paper can be found at:&nbsp;<span><a data-sa=
feredirecturl=3D"https://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttps://zookeys=
.pensoft.net/articles.php?id%3D7882&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714563718=
202000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw3VWXljGvK0h5lN6J-L9h6i" rel=3D"nofollow" style=3D"co=
lor:rgb(25,106,212);text-decoration-line:underline;font-family:Helvetica Ne=
ue,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif" href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles=
.php?id=3D7882">What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celast=
rina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)</a><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,=
40,42);font-family:Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif">&nbsp; Howeve=
r, I urge readers to take great caution in accepting what is published in t=
his paper.&nbsp; Neither author consulted with Dave Wright or myself to has=
h over some of the questions they posed.&nbsp; The paper is flawed, and I w=
ill address this in a paper in work, demonstrating <i>C. serotin</i>a in On=
tario and Maine.</span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><span><span style=3D"c=
olor:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif"><=
br></span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,4=
0,42);font-family:Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif">In the meantim=
e, I am attaching my most recent papers that should help answer some questi=
ons.&nbsp; I welcome questions and inquiries!</span></span></div><div dir=
=3D"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:Helvetica Neu=
e,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif"><br></span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><spa=
n><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:Helvetica Neue,Helvetica,A=
rial,sans-serif">Harry Pavulaan</span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></d=
iv><div dir=3D"ltr">&nbsp;</div><div><br></div>
=20
</div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"></div></=
div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px">
<div style=3D"font-family:'Helvetica Neue',Helvetica,Arial,sans=
-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a">
=20
<div>
On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve=
Mirick &lt;<a rel=3D"nofollow"><smi......></a>&gt; wrote:
</div>
</div></div></div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family=
:arial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:'Helvetica Neue',Helvetica=
,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left:1px solid #ccc;p=
adding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div dir=3D"ltr">I've noticed =
that several butterfly folks out there are calling the <br></div><div dir=
=3D"ltr">azures flying around right now (April &amp; May) "Spring Azures" (=
celastrina <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">ladon) and entering them as such in i=
Naturalist.&nbsp; It used to be that all <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">early s=
pring azures in the northeast were called "Spring Azures", but <br></div><d=
iv dir=3D"ltr">current research suggests that there are between 2 and 3 spe=
cies of <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Azures in April and May in New Hampshire=
.&nbsp; These include the confusingly <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">named (and=
possibly non-occurring) Spring Azure (celastrina ladon), the <br></div><di=
v dir=3D"ltr">Northern Azure (celastrina lucia), and the enigmatic Cherry G=
all Azure <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">(celastrina serotina).&nbsp; Identific=
ation of these three azures is close to <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">impossib=
le based on just photos.&nbsp; It's a real mess out there right now!<br></d=
iv><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Specimens collected in Vermo=
nt during their 1st butterfly atlas showed <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">only =
Northern Azure and Cherry Gall Azure, but DID NOT show any records <br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr">of "Spring Azure"!&nbsp; The common early spring flying =
azure in Vermont is <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">now called the Northern Azur=
e (c. lucia).&nbsp; This is also the case in <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Mai=
ne where the most recent publication "Butterflies of Maine and the <br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr">Canadian Maritime Provinces" only indicates one species =
of Azure in the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">spring and that is the Northern =
Azure (they don't show any records of <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Cherry Gal=
l Azure). They state that "Spring Azure" has NOT BEEN <br></div><div dir=3D=
"ltr">CONFIRMED IN MAINE! Both Maine and Vermont now treat nearly all April=
<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">and May celastrinas (azures) as Northern Azure =
(C. lucuia).....with a <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">few Cherry Gall Azures in=
Vermont.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Based on thi=
s information, it seems likely (or at least possible) that <br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr">Spring Azures (C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!!&nbsp; And=
everything <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">flying right now may in fact best be=
called Northern Azure!!&nbsp; The key <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">problem i=
s that Spring Azure is almost impossible to ID from Northern <br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr">Azure without a specimen!&nbsp; ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENT=
IFIED BY <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">OVERLAPPING SCALE PATTERN UNDER A MICRO=
SCOPE. Yikes!&nbsp; Based on this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">alone, we have=
no idea if "Spring Azures" occur in NH.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr">THE MAPS IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift and Kauffman=
) DON'T REFLECT <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">THIS.&nbsp; They show Spring Azu=
res (C. ladon) as occurring throughout the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">north=
east and into southeastern Canada.&nbsp; THIS IS FALSE as specimens from <b=
r></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Canada have shown that Spring Azures don't occur t=
here except for a <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">couple of records.<br></div><d=
iv dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">The taxonomy is still evolving an=
d the range of the Spring Azure is <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">still a myste=
ry and it's actually possible there may be other hidden <br></div><div dir=
=3D"ltr">species out there.&nbsp; I've decided to call my early spring azur=
es as just <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">"Azure" and enter all of my early spr=
ing records from April and May in <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">iNaturalist as=
"Holarctic Azures" (Celastrina sp.).&nbsp; If you post to this <br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr">list or submit azure photos to iNaturalist during these mon=
ths, you may <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">want to follow this procedure until=
we figure this mess out!&nbsp; Summer <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">sightings=
in late June and July are likely a different species "Summer <br></div><di=
v dir=3D"ltr">Azure" (c. neglecta), but that's another problem to sort out,=
and <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">another story...<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=
<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">If anyone out there has any more recent updates =
on research or opinions, <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">it would be interesting=
to know about.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Bryan =
Pfeiffer does a GREAT JOB in discussing this complex on his web <br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr">site.&nbsp; Highly recommended.&nbsp; Click on the download=
PDF file in the first <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">paragraph.<br></div><div =
dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><a data-saferedirecturl=3D"https://w=
ww.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttps://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/gett=
ing-the-blues/&amp;source=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714563718202000&amp;usg=3DAOvV=
aw3fKMADpWpUkFzjRWeaHf5H" rel=3D"nofollow" href=3D"https://bryanpfeiffer.co=
m/2018/04/02/getting-the-blues/">https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getti=
ng-the-blues/</a><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">And =
if you want to dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:<br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div></div></div></div></div></div><div><div><div s=
tyle=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:'Helvet=
ica Neue',Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-le=
ft:1px solid #ccc;padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div dir=3D=
"ltr"><a data-saferedirecturl=3D"https://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=
=3Dhttps://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id%3D7882&amp;source=3Dgmail&am=
p;ust=3D1714563718202000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw3VWXljGvK0h5lN6J-L9h6i" rel=3D"nof=
ollow" href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882">What Azu=
re blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepid=
optera, Lycaenidae)</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<span style=3D"color:rgb(0,0,0);font-fam=
ily:arial;font-size:16px">&nbsp;</span></div></div></div><div style=3D"font=
-family:'Helvetica Neue',Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#2=
6282a;border-left:1px solid #ccc;padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><=
div></div></div></div></div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial=
;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:'Helvetica Neue',Helvetica,Arial=
,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left:1px solid #ccc;padding=
-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div><br></div><div><br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><a data-saferedirecturl=3D"https://ww=
w.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttps://bugguide.net/node/view/41017&amp;s=
ource=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714563718202000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw20_Kv6ahJkiC9-fKec=
p_2-" rel=3D"nofollow" href=3D"https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017">https:=
//bugguide.net/node/view/41017</a><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr">Steve Mirick<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Bradford, MA<br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div></div></div></div></div></div><div><div><div styl=
e=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:'Helvetica=
Neue',Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:#26282a;border-left:=
1px solid #ccc;padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div dir=3D"lt=
r">-- <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">You received this message because you are =
subscribed to the Google Groups "MassLep" group.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=
To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an e=
mail to <a rel=3D"nofollow">masslep+<u......></a>.<br></div><di=
v dir=3D"ltr">To view this discussion on the web visit <a data-saferedirect=
url=3D"https://www.google.com/url?hl=3Den&amp;q=3Dhttps://groups.google.com=
/d/msgid/masslep/51fde5d5-47b1-4c0b-be44-f1d204a9bc70%2540comcast.net&amp;s=
ource=3Dgmail&amp;ust=3D1714563718202000&amp;usg=3DAOvVaw2df0F8_9RJtqoYRhs1=
_fgy" rel=3D"nofollow" href=3D"https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/51=
<fde5d5-47b1-4c0b-be44-f1d204a9bc70...>">https://groups.google.com=
/d/msgid/masslep/<51fde5d5-47b1-4c0b-be44-f1d204a9bc70...></a>.<br=
></div></div></div></div></div></div></blockquote></div></blockquote></div>

<p></p>

-- <br>
You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "=
MassLep" group.<br>
To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an e=
mail to <a href=3D"mailto:masslep+<unsubscribe...>">masslep+uns=
<ubscribe...></a>.<br>
To view this discussion on the web visit <a href=3D"https://groups.google.c=
om/d/msgid/masslep/<37608ba6-0d7a-45f0-b28d-b0b67406a181n...>=
?utm_medium=3Demail&amp;utm_source=3Dfooter">https://groups.google.com/d/ms=
gid/masslep/<37608ba6-0d7a-45f0-b28d-b0b67406a181n...></a>.<b=
r>
</body></html>

<p></p>

-- <br />
You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups &=
quot;MassLep&quot; group.<br />
To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an e=
mail to <a href=3D"mailto:masslep+<unsubscribe...>">masslep+uns=
<ubscribe...></a>.<br />
To view this discussion on the web visit <a href=3D"https://groups.google.c=
om/d/msgid/masslep/<1848717292.3931791.1714492276060...>?utm_medium=3D=
email&utm_source=3Dfooter">https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/184871=
<7292.3931791.1714492276060...></a>.<br />

----_com.samsung.android.email_40216545448180--