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Date: Tue, 30 Apr 2024 17:42:04 -0400
From: John Calhoun <bretcal2...>
Subject: Re: [MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what are they?

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Thanks, Harry.

I agree that DNA analyses need to be combined with morphological and
biological observations. For a long time, I considered C. serotina to occur
in southern Maine, but the more I looked at the various phenotypes, the
more confusing they became. This, and the fact that C. lucia has been seen
ovipositing on cherry galls in Nova Scotia made things even more confusing.

I remember being the first to record C. serotina in Ohio, way back in the
1980s, long before you guys described it in 2005. I thought it was odd that
they were fresh when local C. ladon were worn, and they were common around
cherry trees that were loaded with galls. I contacted David Wright in 1988
and told him about it. He mentioned that this was likely a new species. The
rest is history!

John

On Tue, Apr 30, 2024 at 11:51=E2=80=AFAM 'pavulaan' via MassLep <
<masslep...> wrote:

>
>
>
>
> Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone
> All:
>
> The difficulty with applying current genomic (DNA) analysis to Celastrina
> is that it does not work separating recently-evolved species, especially
> eastern Celastrina and many of the western Blues. Species like the
> Appalachian and Dusky Azure, very readily differentiated by their life
> histories and appearance could be seen as one species if only current
> genomic analysis was applied, and nothing else. The parts of their genet=
ic
> makeup that differentiate them have not yet been found. The team led by
> Nick Grishin is working on this. In the meantime old-fashioned fieldwork
> is as reliable as ever. In particular, Celastrina serotina has been
> studied for its life history, reared and observed by David Wright and
> myself for over 4 decades. No more fieldwork is needed on those to
> demonstate that they are a species, and eventually the molecular makeup
> that differentiates them will be revealed. Thus, my surprise that the
> Maine Butterfly survey and the Ontario lepidopterists did not recognize
> that species as ocurring in those regions from available data. I have
> specimens from Maine and Ontario that match the original description from
> Rhode Island.
>
> Harry
>
>
>
> -------- Original message --------
> From: 'John Calhoun' via MassLep <masslep...>
> Date: 4/30/24 10:15 AM (GMT-05:00)
> To: MassLep <masslep...>
> Subject: Re: [MassLep] Azures in "Spring" in NH - what are they?
>
> Sorry, everyone, for the similar postings.
>
> I originally drafted my comments in Word and copied them over to the
> group, but this apparently brought some formatting issues that Google
> didn't like, so it appears that my first posts were held up in the system=
.
> The same thing happened when I submitted a similar post to NHButterfly, a=
nd
> Steve had to physically release it. Thinking that my original posts to
> MassLep were lost, I posted again using the slightly different comments I
> sent to NHButterfly. In the end, all three of my posts to MassLeps were
> released, as well as the one to NHButterfly.
>
> I suppose I should have waited it out a bit longer before posting more
> comments! Again, I apologize for the confusion.
>
> John Calhoun
>
> On Tuesday, April 30, 2024 at 6:16:56=E2=80=AFAM UTC-4 John Calhoun wrote=
:
>
>> As a coauthor of the recent Maine and Maritimes butterfly book, I would =
like
>> to respond to some points in Harry Pavulaan=E2=80=99s discussion of *Cel=
astrina*.
>>
>> Although Harry is quick to criticize our treatment of *Celastrina* in
>> the book, we made a concerted effort to recognize that other species may
>> occur in the region. We state that we "tentatively" follow the
>> arrangement of Schmidt and Layberry (2016), and concede that "As the
>> understanding of *C**elastrina* taxonomy improves, other cryptic species
>> (such as the Cherry Gall Azure) may be detected here." We also include a
>> discussion of the possible presence of the Spring Azure and Cherry Gall
>> Azure in Maine in the section =E2=80=9CButterflies of Possible Occurrenc=
e=E2=80=9D at
>> the back of the book, where we note that further study is needed to
>> understand the status of such phenotypes. We even state that =E2=80=9CIt=
is
>> possible that the Cherry Gall Azure will be confirmed in our region.=E2=
=80=9D We
>> were fully aware that there are different interpretations about the
>> various phenotypes that occur in Maine, and admit that our treatment
>> will not necessarily stand the test of time. This is also true of all
>> the various studies out there, as well as those to come.
>>
>> Harry also questions why we did not consult with him or David Wright =E2=
=80=93
>> but we actually did. The treatment of *Celastrina* in our book was fully=
reviewed
>> by David. Notice that the *C. neglecta *account includes the citation
>> =E2=80=9CD. M. Wright, pers. comm. to J. Calhoun.=E2=80=9D It was David =
who suggested
>> that the =E2=80=9CSpring Azures=E2=80=9D in southern Maine are possibly =
just Northern
>> Azures that present Spring Azure traits, =E2=80=9Cperhaps the result of =
past
>> genetic introgression from the Spring Azure at the northern limits of it=
s
>> range." David also reviewed the entire book prior to publication.
>>
>> We attempted to present a reasonable treatment of *Celastrina*, but
>> there are so many differing opinions about this group that no matter
>> what is written, someone will disagree. In fact, a recent paper titled
>> =E2=80=9CA genetic atlas for the butterflies of continental Canada and t=
he
>> United States=E2=80=9D (2024, PLoS ONE 19(4)) suggests that all North Am=
erican
>> *Celastrina* represent one species! However, I was told that not all the
>> authors of this paper approve of that conclusion, so there can even be
>> disagreement among coauthors of individual publications.
>>
>> I think we need to be careful not to suggest that our own opinions are
>> the only correct ones. In the end, it=E2=80=99s all about personal exper=
ience
>> and interpretation. We must each decide which treatment to follow and
>> forge ahead. I personally await extensive genomic analyses of all the
>> various phenotypes, cross-referenced with biology and morphology, but
>> that may be years away. Nonetheless, even those results will be open to
>> interpretation.
>>
>> Finally, one additional point needs to be clarified. Harry states that "=
Schmidt
>> & Layberry did not recognize *C. ladon* in Ontario." In fact, these
>> authors mention the discovery of several museum specimens of this specie=
s
>> from Ontario, listing them in the text, and even figuring two of them.
>> They ultimately state that =E2=80=9C*Celastrina ladon* is therefore conf=
irmed as
>> part of the Canadian fauna for the first time. Although other literature
>> and even photo records may exist, voucher specimens are needed to verify
>> identification, at least until phenotypic variation and distribution of =
*C.
>> ladon* in southern Ontario is better documented.=E2=80=9D
>>
>> Thanks for reading,
>>
>> John Calhoun
>>
>> On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 4:06:02=E2=80=AFPM UTC-4 <pavu......> wr=
ote:
>>
>>> Steve, all:
>>>
>>> Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who rely solely on
>>> Butterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are not aware =
that
>>> the *Celastrina* genus has been split into several species over the
>>> past 20 or so years. Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three species=
in
>>> North America. The Pelham catalogue (butterfliesofamerica.org)
>>> recognizes 11 species, all based on extensive peer-reviewed research.
>>> Thus, many folks posting to iNat or BAMONA still think everything from
>>> coast to coast is "*C. ladon*". That being said...
>>>
>>> To address your email, first, New Hampshire has four *Celastrina *speci=
es:
>>> *ladon, lucia, neglecta* and *serotina*. NH does have *ladon*, or what
>>> we are tentatively calling *C. ladon*. This is based on the presence
>>> of Azures across the southernmost counties of New Hampshire which have =
the *ladon
>>> *male dorsal wing scale structure that separates *ladon *from all other=
*Celastrina
>>> *species. That "version" of *ladon* is found throughout southern New
>>> England, including the two southmost counties in Maine, but there are n=
o
>>> records from Vermont. This population of *ladon *actually has hybrid
>>> traits with its northern cousin, *C. lucia*. The ventral sides of *lad=
on
>>> *and *lucia *are virtually impossible to distinguish because each has
>>> the same exact range of variation, from spotted venters to
>>> heavily-patterned variants, but the males have different dorsal wing sc=
ale
>>> structures. This is not "variation", as both scale types breed true as
>>> demonstrated by almost 4 decades of research. Both *ladon *and *lucia =
*fly
>>> early, and *C. serotina* emerges about a full month later than either. =
*Serotina
>>> *is easily distinguished by its whitish venter and well-developed spot
>>> pattern.
>>>
>>> The newest wrench in the gears of *Celastrina *identification is that
>>> the multivoltine ecotype of *C. neglecta* has apparently established
>>> itself well into Massachusetts in recent years. It previously only ran=
ged
>>> north to around New York City and not across southern New England. I'v=
e
>>> seen a number of images that clearly show the multivoltine *neglecta *s=
pring
>>> form in Massachusetts. The problem is that these emerge along with *la=
don
>>> *and *lucia *in regions where each occurs. *Neglecta *stands out from =
*lucia
>>> *and *ladon *because it is almost pure white beneath with very small
>>> spots. People ask me how the "Summer" Azure can produce a spring fligh=
t.
>>> Apparently, this has been the norm throughout the range of
>>> *multivoltine* *neglecta *- forever. But we only discovered this in
>>> the 1990's. What many people in the south consider *C. ladon*, turns
>>> out to be spring form *neglecta*. This also has been proven out, over
>>> 4 decades of breeding and fieldwork. *C. neglecta* is the predominant
>>> spring flight in many regions. *C. ladon*, on the other hand, has a
>>> much smaller range than *neglecta*, as evidenced by examination of male
>>> wings. When I review iNat records of *ladon*, probably 95% of those
>>> images in the U.S. are, in fact, spring brood *neglecta*.
>>>
>>> So what about the traditional Summer Azure in New England? That is a
>>> different univoltine (or partly bivoltine) *neglecta *ecotype that
>>> flies only in July and occasionally in September. Thus, in southern Ne=
w
>>> England, the multivoltine *neglecta *would fly in April, June and
>>> August, whereas univoltine (or partly bivoltine) *neglecta *flies in
>>> July and occasionally in September. The two ecotypes leap-frog one
>>> another, giving the impression that *neglecta *flies continuously from
>>> June into August or occasionally into September. This is an amazing
>>> situation, which we are still working on.
>>>
>>> The recent Butterflies of Maine book, unfortunately, followed a flawed
>>> paper by Schmidt & Layberry that discounted *C. serotina* in Ontario
>>> and suggested it might merely be a "late *lucia*". Schmidt & Layberry
>>> did not recognize *C. ladon* in Ontario, of which there are historical
>>> records around Pt. Pelee. What we call *ladon*, based on the male wing
>>> scale structure, does occur in southern Maine. I'm not sure why the
>>> authors of the Maine book did not consult with either myself or David
>>> Wright on *Celastrina *distributions. Schmidt and Layberry also
>>> insisted that *C. serotina* does not occur in Ontario, based on what I
>>> consider premature assumptions and flawed research. The authors of the
>>> Maine book followed suit and did not recognize *C. serotina* in Maine.
>>> I am presently working on a research paper that will demonstrate the
>>> presence of *serotina *in both Ontario and Maine, based on wing color
>>> analysis, and will address flaws in the Schmidt & Layberry paper.
>>>
>>> Many of our discoveries with *Celastrina *come after the publication
>>> date of many recent guides, including the Kaufman guide. The Kaufman g=
uide
>>> has the most updated taxonomy, though the Pelham list on
>>> Butterfliesofamerica.com is the most current and authoritative. Maps i=
n
>>> virtually all guides are relatively useless.
>>>
>>> I am attaching papers which are more recent, but most folks are not
>>> aware of. The ranges of *ladon *and *neglecta *are clearly
>>> delineated. Dave Wright and Gordon Pratt performed an extensive
>>> electrophosesis-based analysis of North American *Celastrina *populatio=
ns,
>>> yet unpublished that support our conclusions, as reflected in the 2023
>>> Pelham Catalogue. The team of Nick Grishin is currently performing
>>> extensive allozyme studies of all North American populations, that hope=
to
>>> settle the taxonomic issues. We are also exploring the presence of at
>>> least one, but possibly two new species in the eastern U.S.
>>>
>>> That Schmidt & Layberry paper can be found at: What Azure blues occur
>>> in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera,
>>> Lycaenidae) <https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882>
>>> However, I urge readers to take great caution in accepting what is
>>> published in this paper. Neither author consulted with Dave Wright or
>>> myself to hash over some of the questions they posed. The paper is fla=
wed,
>>> and I will address this in a paper in work, demonstrating *C. serotin*a
>>> in Ontario and Maine.
>>>
>>> In the meantime, I am attaching my most recent papers that should help
>>> answer some questions. I welcome questions and inquiries!
>>>
>>> Harry Pavulaan
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve Mirick <
>>> <smi......> wrote:
>>> I've noticed that several butterfly folks out there are calling the
>>> azures flying around right now (April & May) "Spring Azures" (celastrin=
a
>>> ladon) and entering them as such in iNaturalist. It used to be that al=
l
>>> early spring azures in the northeast were called "Spring Azures", but
>>> current research suggests that there are between 2 and 3 species of
>>> Azures in April and May in New Hampshire. These include the confusingl=
y
>>> named (and possibly non-occurring) Spring Azure (celastrina ladon), the
>>> Northern Azure (celastrina lucia), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure
>>> (celastrina serotina). Identification of these three azures is close t=
o
>>> impossible based on just photos. It's a real mess out there right now!
>>>
>>> Specimens collected in Vermont during their 1st butterfly atlas showed
>>> only Northern Azure and Cherry Gall Azure, but DID NOT show any records
>>> of "Spring Azure"! The common early spring flying azure in Vermont is
>>> now called the Northern Azure (c. lucia). This is also the case in
>>> Maine where the most recent publication "Butterflies of Maine and the
>>> Canadian Maritime Provinces" only indicates one species of Azure in the
>>> spring and that is the Northern Azure (they don't show any records of
>>> Cherry Gall Azure). They state that "Spring Azure" has NOT BEEN
>>> CONFIRMED IN MAINE! Both Maine and Vermont now treat nearly all April
>>> and May celastrinas (azures) as Northern Azure (C. lucuia).....with a
>>> few Cherry Gall Azures in Vermont.
>>>
>>> Based on this information, it seems likely (or at least possible) that
>>> Spring Azures (C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH!!!! And everything
>>> flying right now may in fact best be called Northern Azure!! The key
>>> problem is that Spring Azure is almost impossible to ID from Northern
>>> Azure without a specimen! ONLY MALES CAN BE SAFELY IDENTIFIED BY
>>> OVERLAPPING SCALE PATTERN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. Yikes! Based on this
>>> alone, we have no idea if "Spring Azures" occur in NH.
>>>
>>> THE MAPS IN THE CURRENT FIELD GUIDES (Swift and Kauffman) DON'T REFLECT
>>> THIS. They show Spring Azures (C. ladon) as occurring throughout the
>>> northeast and into southeastern Canada. THIS IS FALSE as specimens fro=
m
>>> Canada have shown that Spring Azures don't occur there except for a
>>> couple of records.
>>>
>>> The taxonomy is still evolving and the range of the Spring Azure is
>>> still a mystery and it's actually possible there may be other hidden
>>> species out there. I've decided to call my early spring azures as just
>>> "Azure" and enter all of my early spring records from April and May in
>>> iNaturalist as "Holarctic Azures" (Celastrina sp.). If you post to thi=
s
>>> list or submit azure photos to iNaturalist during these months, you may
>>> want to follow this procedure until we figure this mess out! Summer
>>> sightings in late June and July are likely a different species "Summer
>>> Azure" (c. neglecta), but that's another problem to sort out, and
>>> another story...
>>>
>>> If anyone out there has any more recent updates on research or opinions=
,
>>> it would be interesting to know about.
>>>
>>> Bryan Pfeiffer does a GREAT JOB in discussing this complex on his web
>>> site. Highly recommended. Click on the download PDF file in the first
>>> paragraph.
>>>
>>> https://bryanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-the-blues/
>>>
>>> And if you want to dig deeper, here are some other articles for review:
>>>
>>> What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt
>>> species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)
>>> <https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> https://bugguide.net/node/view/41017
>>>
>>> Steve Mirick
>>> Bradford, MA
>>>
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>>> .
>>>
>> --
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<div dir=3D"ltr">Thanks, Harry.=C2=A0<div><br></div><div>I agree that DNA a=
nalyses need to be combined with morphological and biological observations.=
For a long time, I considered C. serotina to occur in southern Maine, but =
the more I looked at the various phenotypes, the more confusing they became=
. This, and the fact that C. lucia has been seen ovipositing on cherry gall=
s in Nova Scotia made things even more confusing.=C2=A0</div><div><br></div=
><div>I remember being the first to record C. serotina in Ohio, way back in=
the 1980s, long before you guys described it in 2005. I thought it was odd=
that they were fresh when local C. ladon were worn, and they were common a=
round cherry trees that were loaded with galls. I contacted David Wright in=
1988 and told him about it. He mentioned that this was likely a new specie=
s. The rest is history!=C2=A0 =C2=A0</div><div><br></div><div>John</div></d=
iv><br><div class=3D"gmail_quote"><div dir=3D"ltr" class=3D"gmail_attr">On =
Tue, Apr 30, 2024 at 11:51=E2=80=AFAM &#39;pavulaan&#39; via MassLep &lt;<a=
href=3D"mailto:<masslep...>"><masslep...></a>&gt; =
wrote:<br></div><blockquote class=3D"gmail_quote" style=3D"margin:0px 0px 0=
px 0.8ex;border-left:1px solid rgb(204,204,204);padding-left:1ex"><div dir=
=3D"auto"><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=
=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div id=3D"m_53144520968993=
90187composer_signature" dir=3D"auto"><div style=3D"font-size:12px;color:rg=
b(87,87,87)" dir=3D"auto">Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone</=
div></div><div dir=3D"auto">All:</div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=
=3D"auto">The difficulty with applying current genomic (DNA) analysis to Ce=
lastrina is that it does not work separating recently-evolved species, espe=
cially eastern Celastrina and many of the western Blues.=C2=A0 Species like=
the Appalachian and Dusky Azure, very readily differentiated by their life=
histories and appearance could be seen as one species if only current geno=
mic analysis was applied, and nothing else.=C2=A0 The parts of their geneti=
c makeup that differentiate them have not yet been found.=C2=A0 The team le=
d by Nick Grishin is working on this.=C2=A0 In the meantime old-fashioned f=
ieldwork is as reliable as ever.=C2=A0 In particular, Celastrina serotina h=
as been studied for its life history, reared and observed by David Wright a=
nd myself for over 4 decades.=C2=A0 No more fieldwork is needed on those to=
demonstate that they are a species, and eventually the molecular makeup th=
at differentiates them will be revealed.=C2=A0 Thus, my surprise that the M=
aine Butterfly survey and the Ontario lepidopterists did not recognize that=
species as ocurring in those regions from available data.=C2=A0 I have spe=
cimens from Maine and Ontario that match the original description from Rhod=
e Island.</div><div dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto">Harry</div><di=
v dir=3D"auto"><br></div><div dir=3D"auto">=C2=A0=C2=A0</div><div><br></div=
><div align=3D"left" dir=3D"auto" style=3D"font-size:100%;color:rgb(0,0,0)"=
><div>-------- Original message --------</div><div>From: &#39;John Calhoun&=
#39; via MassLep &lt;<a href=3D"mailto:<masslep...>" target=3D"=
_blank"><masslep...></a>&gt; </div><div>Date: 4/30/24 10:15 AM=
(GMT-05:00) </div><div>To: MassLep &lt;<a href=3D"mailto:masslep@googlegr=
oups.com" target=3D"_blank"><masslep...></a>&gt; </div><div>Sub=
ject: Re: [MassLep] Azures in &quot;Spring&quot; in NH - what are they? </d=
iv><div><br></div></div>Sorry, everyone, for the similar postings.=C2=A0<di=
v><br></div><div>I originally drafted my comments in Word and copied them o=
ver to the group, but this apparently brought some formatting issues that G=
oogle didn&#39;t like, so it appears that my first posts were held up in th=
e system. The same thing happened when I submitted a similar post to NHButt=
erfly, and Steve had to physically release it. Thinking that my original po=
sts to MassLep were lost, I posted again using the slightly different comme=
nts I sent to NHButterfly. In the end, all three of my posts to MassLeps we=
re released, as well as the one to NHButterfly.=C2=A0</div><div><br></div><=
div>I suppose I should have waited it out a bit longer before posting more =
comments! Again, I apologize for the confusion.=C2=A0 =C2=A0</div><div><br>=
</div><div>John Calhoun=C2=A0 =C2=A0=C2=A0<br><br></div><div class=3D"gmail=
_quote"><div class=3D"gmail_attr" dir=3D"auto">On Tuesday, April 30, 2024 a=
t 6:16:56=E2=80=AFAM UTC-4 John Calhoun wrote:<br></div><blockquote style=
=3D"margin:0px 0px 0px 0.8ex;border-left:1px solid rgb(204,204,204);padding=
-left:1ex" class=3D"gmail_quote"><font size=3D"3"><span style=3D"color:rgb(=
46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">As a coauthor of the re=
cent Maine and Maritimes butterfly book, I would=C2=A0</span><span style=3D=
"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">like to resp=
ond to some points in Harry Pavulaan=E2=80=99s discussion of=C2=A0</span><s=
pan style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=
<i>Celastrina</i>.</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial=
;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);fo=
nt-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px"><br></span></font><div><font size=
=3D"3"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:=
-0.32px">Although Harry is quick to criticize our treatment of <i>Celastrin=
a</i> in the=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:ari=
al;letter-spacing:-0.32px">book, we made a concerted effort to recognize th=
at other species may occur=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);f=
ont-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">in the region. We state that we &q=
uot;tentatively&quot; follow the arrangement of=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"=
color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Schmidt and L=
ayberry (2016), and concede that &quot;As the understanding of <i>C</i></sp=
an><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.3=
2px"><i>elastrina</i> taxonomy improves, other cryptic species (such as the=
Cherry=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;le=
tter-spacing:-0.32px">Gall Azure) may be detected here.&quot; We also inclu=
de a discussion of the=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-=
family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">possible presence of the Spring Azure =
and Cherry Gall Azure in Maine in the=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(=
46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">section =E2=80=9CButter=
flies of Possible Occurrence=E2=80=9D at the back of the book, where=C2=A0<=
/span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-=
0.32px">we note that further study is needed to understand the status of su=
ch=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-=
spacing:-0.32px">phenotypes. We even state that =E2=80=9CIt is possible tha=
t the Cherry Gall Azure=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font=
-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">will be confirmed in our region.=E2=
=80=9D We were fully aware that there are=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:=
rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">different interpret=
ations about the various phenotypes that occur in Maine,=C2=A0</span><span =
style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">and =
admit that our treatment will not necessarily stand the test of time.=C2=A0=
</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:=
-0.32px">This is also true of all the various studies out there, as well as=
those to=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;=
letter-spacing:-0.32px">come.</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-f=
amily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(4=
6,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><span style=
=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</s=
pan><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32=
px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;lette=
r-spacing:-0.32px">Harry also questions why we did not consult with him or =
David Wright =E2=80=93 but=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);f=
ont-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">we actually did. The treatment of =
<i>Celastrina</i> in our book was fully=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rg=
b(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">reviewed by David. No=
tice that the <i>C. neglecta </i>account includes the=C2=A0</span><span sty=
le=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">citatio=
n =E2=80=9CD. M. Wright, pers. comm. to J. Calhoun.=E2=80=9D It was David w=
ho=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-=
spacing:-0.32px">suggested that the =E2=80=9CSpring Azures=E2=80=9D in sout=
hern Maine are possibly just=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46)=
;font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Northern Azures that present Spr=
ing Azure traits, =E2=80=9Cperhaps the result of=C2=A0</span><span style=3D=
"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">past genetic=
introgression from the Spring Azure at the northern limits of=C2=A0</span>=
<span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px=
">its range.&quot; David also reviewed the entire book prior to publication=
.</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-=
0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;l=
etter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-f=
amily:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(4=
6,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">We attempted to present =
a reasonable treatment of <i>Celastrina</i>, but there=C2=A0</span><span st=
yle=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">are so=
many differing opinions about this group that no matter what is=C2=A0</spa=
n><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32=
px">written, someone will disagree. In fact, a recent paper titled =E2=80=
=9CA genetic=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:ari=
al;letter-spacing:-0.32px">atlas for the butterflies of continental Canada =
and the United States=E2=80=9D=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,4=
6);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">(2024, PLoS ONE 19(4)) suggest=
s that all North American <i>Celastrina</i>=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"colo=
r:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">represent one spe=
cies! However, I was told that not all the authors of this=C2=A0</span><spa=
n style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">pa=
per approve of that conclusion, so there can even be disagreement among=C2=
=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spaci=
ng:-0.32px">coauthors of individual publications.</span><br style=3D"color:=
rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span =
style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=
=A0</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing=
:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial=
;letter-spacing:-0.32px">I think we need to be careful not to suggest that =
our own opinions are the=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);fon=
t-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">only correct ones. In the end, it=E2=
=80=99s all about personal experience and=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:=
rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">interpretation. We =
must each decide which treatment to follow and forge=C2=A0</span><span styl=
e=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">ahead. I=
personally await extensive genomic analyses of all the various=C2=A0</span=
><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32p=
x">phenotypes, cross-referenced with biology and morphology, but that may b=
e=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-s=
pacing:-0.32px">years away. Nonetheless, even those results will be open to=
interpretation.</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;l=
etter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font=
-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(4=
6,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=
=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">Finally, =
one additional point needs to be clarified. Harry states that=C2=A0</span><=
span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px"=
>&quot;Schmidt &amp; Layberry did not recognize <i>C. ladon</i> in Ontario.=
&quot; In fact,=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:=
arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">these authors mention the discovery of severa=
l museum specimens of this=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);f=
ont-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">species from Ontario, listing them=
in the text, and even figuring two of=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb=
(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">them. They ultimately =
state that =E2=80=9C<i>Celastrina ladon</i> is therefore=C2=A0</span><span =
style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">conf=
irmed as part of the Canadian fauna for the first time. Although other=C2=
=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spaci=
ng:-0.32px">literature and even photo records may exist, voucher specimens =
are needed=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial=
;letter-spacing:-0.32px">to verify identification, at least until phenotypi=
c variation and=C2=A0</span><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:=
arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">distribution of <i>C. ladon</i> in southern O=
ntario is better documented.=E2=80=9D</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46=
);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"col=
or:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><br=
style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outl=
ine:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spaci=
ng:-0.32px">Thanks for reading,</span><br style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font=
-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:none"><span style=3D"color:rgb=
(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px">=C2=A0</span><br style=
=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.32px;outline:no=
ne"><span style=3D"color:rgb(46,46,46);font-family:arial;letter-spacing:-0.=
32px">John Calhoun</span></font><br><br></div><div class=3D"gmail_quote"></=
div><div class=3D"gmail_quote"><div class=3D"gmail_attr" dir=3D"auto">On Fr=
iday, April 26, 2024 at 4:06:02=E2=80=AFPM UTC-4 <a rel=3D"nofollow">pavu..=
<....></a> wrote:<br></div></div><div class=3D"gmail_quote"><blockquote =
style=3D"margin:0px 0px 0px 0.8ex;border-left:1px solid rgb(204,204,204);pa=
dding-left:1ex" class=3D"gmail_quote"><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;=
font-size:16px"><div></div>
<div dir=3D"ltr">Steve, all:</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr">Unfortunately, many people, especially NABA members who rely sol=
ely on Butterflies Through Binoculars or the Swift Guide, still are not awa=
re that the <i>Celastrina</i> genus has been split into several species ove=
r the past 20 or so years.=C2=A0 Unfortunately, NABA only recognizes three =
species in North America.=C2=A0 The Pelham catalogue (<a rel=3D"nofollow" h=
ref=3D"http://butterfliesofamerica.org" target=3D"_blank">butterfliesofamer=
ica.org</a>) recognizes 11 species, all based on extensive peer-reviewed re=
search.=C2=A0 Thus, many folks posting to iNat or BAMONA still think everyt=
hing from coast to coast is &quot;<i>C. ladon</i>&quot;.=C2=A0 That being s=
aid...</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">To address your ema=
il, first, New Hampshire has four <i>Celastrina </i>species: <i>ladon, luci=
a, neglecta</i> and <i>serotina</i>.=C2=A0 NH does have <i>ladon</i>, or wh=
at we are tentatively calling <i>C. ladon</i>.=C2=A0 This is based on the p=
resence of Azures across the southernmost counties of New Hampshire which h=
ave the <i>ladon </i>male dorsal wing scale structure that separates <i>lad=
on </i>from all other <i>Celastrina </i>species.=C2=A0 That &quot;version&q=
uot; of <i>ladon</i> is found throughout southern New England, including th=
e two southmost counties in Maine, but there are no records from Vermont.=
=C2=A0 This population of <i>ladon </i>actually has hybrid traits with its =
northern cousin, <i>C. lucia</i>.=C2=A0 The ventral sides of <i>ladon </i>a=
nd <i>lucia </i>are virtually impossible to distinguish because each has th=
e same exact range of variation, from spotted venters to heavily-patterned =
variants, but the males have different dorsal wing scale structures.=C2=A0 =
This is not &quot;variation&quot;, as both scale types breed true as demons=
trated by almost 4 decades of research.=C2=A0 Both <i>ladon </i>and <i>luci=
a </i>fly early, and <i>C. serotina</i> emerges about a full month later th=
an either.=C2=A0 <i>Serotina </i>is easily distinguished by its whitish ven=
ter and well-developed spot pattern.</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div d=
ir=3D"ltr">The newest wrench in the gears of <i>Celastrina </i>identificati=
on is that the multivoltine ecotype of <i>C. neglecta</i> has apparently es=
tablished itself well into Massachusetts in recent years.=C2=A0 It previous=
ly only ranged north to around New York City and not across southern New En=
gland.=C2=A0 I&#39;ve seen a number of images that clearly show the multivo=
ltine <i>neglecta </i>spring form in Massachusetts.=C2=A0 The problem is th=
at these emerge along with <i>ladon </i>and <i>lucia </i>in regions where e=
ach occurs.=C2=A0 <i>Neglecta </i>stands out from <i>lucia </i>and <i>ladon=
</i>because it is almost pure white beneath with very small spots.=C2=A0 P=
eople ask me how the &quot;Summer&quot; Azure can produce a spring flight.=
=C2=A0 Apparently, this has been the norm throughout the range of <u>multiv=
oltine</u> <i>neglecta </i>- forever.=C2=A0 But we only discovered this in =
the 1990&#39;s.=C2=A0 What many people in the south consider <i>C. ladon</i=
>, turns out to be spring form <i>neglecta</i>.=C2=A0 This also has been pr=
oven out, over 4 decades of breeding and fieldwork.=C2=A0 <i>C. neglecta</i=
> is the predominant spring flight in many regions.=C2=A0 <i>C. ladon</i>, =
on the other hand, has a much smaller range than <i>neglecta</i>, as eviden=
ced by examination of male wings.=C2=A0 When I review iNat records of <i>la=
don</i>, probably 95% of those images in the U.S. are, in fact, spring broo=
d <i>neglecta</i>.</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">So what=
about the traditional Summer Azure in New England?=C2=A0 That is a differe=
nt univoltine (or partly bivoltine) <i>neglecta </i>ecotype that flies only=
in July and occasionally in September.=C2=A0 Thus, in southern New England=
, the multivoltine <i>neglecta </i>would fly in April, June and August, whe=
reas univoltine (or partly bivoltine) <i>neglecta </i>flies in July and occ=
asionally in September.=C2=A0 The two ecotypes leap-frog one another, givin=
g the impression that <i>neglecta </i>flies continuously from June into Aug=
ust or occasionally into September.=C2=A0 This is an amazing situation, whi=
ch we are still working on.</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr=
">The recent Butterflies of Maine book, unfortunately, followed a flawed pa=
per by Schmidt &amp; Layberry that discounted <i>C. serotina</i> in Ontario=
and suggested it might merely be a &quot;late <i>lucia</i>&quot;.=C2=A0 Sc=
hmidt &amp; Layberry did not recognize <i>C. ladon</i> in Ontario, of which=
there are historical records around Pt. Pelee.=C2=A0 What we call <i>ladon=
</i>, based on the male wing scale structure, does occur in southern Maine.=
=C2=A0 I&#39;m not sure why the authors of the Maine book did not consult w=
ith either myself or David Wright on <i>Celastrina </i>distributions.=C2=A0=
Schmidt and Layberry also insisted that <i>C. serotina</i> does not occur =
in Ontario, based on what I consider premature assumptions and flawed resea=
rch.=C2=A0 The authors of the Maine book followed suit and did not recogniz=
e <i>C. serotina</i> in Maine.=C2=A0 I am presently working on a research p=
aper that will demonstrate the presence of <i>serotina </i>in both Ontario =
and Maine, based on wing color analysis, and will address flaws in the Schm=
idt &amp; Layberry paper.=C2=A0=C2=A0</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div =
dir=3D"ltr">Many of our discoveries with <i>Celastrina </i>come after the p=
ublication date of many recent guides, including the Kaufman guide.=C2=A0 T=
he Kaufman guide has the most updated taxonomy, though the Pelham list on B=
utterfliesofamerica.com is the most current and authoritative.=C2=A0 Maps i=
n virtually all guides are relatively useless.</div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></=
div><div dir=3D"ltr">I am attaching papers which are more recent, but most =
folks are not aware of.=C2=A0 The ranges of <i>ladon </i>and <i>neglecta </=
i>are clearly delineated.=C2=A0 Dave Wright and Gordon Pratt performed an e=
xtensive electrophosesis-based analysis of North American <i>Celastrina </i=
>populations, yet unpublished that support our conclusions, as reflected in=
the 2023 Pelham Catalogue.=C2=A0 The team of Nick Grishin is currently per=
forming extensive allozyme studies of all North American populations, that =
hope to settle the taxonomic issues.=C2=A0 We are also exploring the presen=
ce of at least one, but possibly two new species in the eastern U.S.=C2=A0<=
/div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">That Schmidt &amp; Layberr=
y paper can be found at:=C2=A0<span><a rel=3D"nofollow" style=3D"color:rgb(=
25,106,212);text-decoration-line:underline;font-family:&quot;Helvetica Neue=
&quot;,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif" href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net/arti=
cles.php?id=3D7882" target=3D"_blank">What Azure blues occur in Canada? A r=
e-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)</a><span =
style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:&quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;,Helveti=
ca,Arial,sans-serif">=C2=A0 However, I urge readers to take great caution i=
n accepting what is published in this paper.=C2=A0 Neither author consulted=
with Dave Wright or myself to hash over some of the questions they posed.=
=C2=A0 The paper is flawed, and I will address this in a paper in work, dem=
onstrating <i>C. serotin</i>a in Ontario and Maine.</span></span></div><div=
dir=3D"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:&quot;Hel=
vetica Neue&quot;,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif"><br></span></span></div><div =
dir=3D"ltr"><span><span style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:&quot;Helv=
etica Neue&quot;,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif">In the meantime, I am attachin=
g my most recent papers that should help answer some questions.=C2=A0 I wel=
come questions and inquiries!</span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><span><sp=
an style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:&quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;,Helv=
etica,Arial,sans-serif"><br></span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><span><spa=
n style=3D"color:rgb(38,40,42);font-family:&quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;,Helve=
tica,Arial,sans-serif">Harry Pavulaan</span></span></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><=
br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=C2=A0</div><div><br></div>
=20
</div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"></div></=
div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px">
<div style=3D"font-family:&quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;,Helvetica,=
Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:rgb(38,40,42)">
=20
<div>
On Friday, April 26, 2024 at 09:53:29 AM EDT, Steve=
Mirick &lt;<a rel=3D"nofollow"><smi......></a>&gt; wrote:
</div>
</div></div></div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family=
:arial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:&quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;=
,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:rgb(38,40,42);border-left:=
1px solid rgb(204,204,204);padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><d=
iv dir=3D"ltr">I&#39;ve noticed that several butterfly folks out there are =
calling the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">azures flying around right now (Apri=
l &amp; May) &quot;Spring Azures&quot; (celastrina <br></div><div dir=3D"lt=
r">ladon) and entering them as such in iNaturalist.=C2=A0 It used to be tha=
t all <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">early spring azures in the northeast were =
called &quot;Spring Azures&quot;, but <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">current re=
search suggests that there are between 2 and 3 species of <br></div><div di=
r=3D"ltr">Azures in April and May in New Hampshire.=C2=A0 These include the=
confusingly <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">named (and possibly non-occurring) =
Spring Azure (celastrina ladon), the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Northern Az=
ure (celastrina lucia), and the enigmatic Cherry Gall Azure <br></div><div =
dir=3D"ltr">(celastrina serotina).=C2=A0 Identification of these three azur=
es is close to <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">impossible based on just photos.=
=C2=A0 It&#39;s a real mess out there right now!<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=
<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Specimens collected in Vermont during their 1st =
butterfly atlas showed <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">only Northern Azure and C=
herry Gall Azure, but DID NOT show any records <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">o=
f &quot;Spring Azure&quot;!=C2=A0 The common early spring flying azure in V=
ermont is <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">now called the Northern Azure (c. luci=
a).=C2=A0 This is also the case in <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Maine where t=
he most recent publication &quot;Butterflies of Maine and the <br></div><di=
v dir=3D"ltr">Canadian Maritime Provinces&quot; only indicates one species =
of Azure in the <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">spring and that is the Northern =
Azure (they don&#39;t show any records of <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Cherry=
Gall Azure). They state that &quot;Spring Azure&quot; has NOT BEEN <br></d=
iv><div dir=3D"ltr">CONFIRMED IN MAINE! Both Maine and Vermont now treat ne=
arly all April <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">and May celastrinas (azures) as N=
orthern Azure (C. lucuia).....with a <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">few Cherry =
Gall Azures in Vermont.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr=
">Based on this information, it seems likely (or at least possible) that <b=
r></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Spring Azures (C. ladon) do not occur at all in NH=
!!!!=C2=A0 And everything <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">flying right now may i=
n fact best be called Northern Azure!!=C2=A0 The key <br></div><div dir=3D"=
ltr">problem is that Spring Azure is almost impossible to ID from Northern =
<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Azure without a specimen!=C2=A0 ONLY MALES CAN B=
E SAFELY IDENTIFIED BY <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">OVERLAPPING SCALE PATTERN=
UNDER A MICROSCOPE. Yikes!=C2=A0 Based on this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=
alone, we have no idea if &quot;Spring Azures&quot; occur in NH.<br></div><=
div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">THE MAPS IN THE CURRENT FIELD GU=
IDES (Swift and Kauffman) DON&#39;T REFLECT <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">THIS=
.=C2=A0 They show Spring Azures (C. ladon) as occurring throughout the <br>=
</div><div dir=3D"ltr">northeast and into southeastern Canada.=C2=A0 THIS I=
S FALSE as specimens from <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Canada have shown that=
Spring Azures don&#39;t occur there except for a <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr=
">couple of records.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">T=
he taxonomy is still evolving and the range of the Spring Azure is <br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr">still a mystery and it&#39;s actually possible there may=
be other hidden <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">species out there.=C2=A0 I&#39;=
ve decided to call my early spring azures as just <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr=
">&quot;Azure&quot; and enter all of my early spring records from April and=
May in <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">iNaturalist as &quot;Holarctic Azures&qu=
ot; (Celastrina sp.).=C2=A0 If you post to this <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">=
list or submit azure photos to iNaturalist during these months, you may <br=
></div><div dir=3D"ltr">want to follow this procedure until we figure this =
mess out!=C2=A0 Summer <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">sightings in late June an=
d July are likely a different species &quot;Summer <br></div><div dir=3D"lt=
r">Azure&quot; (c. neglecta), but that&#39;s another problem to sort out, a=
nd <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">another story...<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><b=
r></div><div dir=3D"ltr">If anyone out there has any more recent updates on=
research or opinions, <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">it would be interesting t=
o know about.<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Bryan Pf=
eiffer does a GREAT JOB in discussing this complex on his web <br></div><di=
v dir=3D"ltr">site.=C2=A0 Highly recommended.=C2=A0 Click on the download P=
DF file in the first <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">paragraph.<br></div><div di=
r=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><a rel=3D"nofollow" href=3D"https://br=
yanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-the-blues/" target=3D"_blank">https://br=
yanpfeiffer.com/2018/04/02/getting-the-blues/</a><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"=
><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">And if you want to dig deeper, here are some ot=
her articles for review:<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div></div></div></=
div></div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"><=
div style=3D"font-family:&quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;,Helvetica,Arial,sans-se=
rif;font-size:13px;color:rgb(38,40,42);border-left:1px solid rgb(204,204,20=
4);padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div dir=3D"ltr"><a rel=3D=
"nofollow" href=3D"https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=3D7882" targ=
et=3D"_blank">What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastri=
na Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)</a>=C2=A0=C2=A0<span style=3D"col=
or:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:arial;font-size:16px">=C2=A0</span></div></div></=
div><div style=3D"font-family:&quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;,Helvetica,Arial,sa=
ns-serif;font-size:13px;color:rgb(38,40,42);border-left:1px solid rgb(204,2=
04,204);padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div></div></div></div></d=
iv></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family:arial;font-size:16px"><div sty=
le=3D"font-family:&quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;fon=
t-size:13px;color:rgb(38,40,42);border-left:1px solid rgb(204,204,204);padd=
ing-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div><br></div><div><br></div><di=
v dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><a rel=3D"nofollow" href=3D"https:=
//bugguide.net/node/view/41017" target=3D"_blank">https://bugguide.net/node=
/view/41017</a><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Steve =
Mirick<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">Bradford, MA<br></div><div dir=3D"ltr"><br=
></div></div></div></div></div></div><div><div><div style=3D"font-family:ar=
ial;font-size:16px"><div style=3D"font-family:&quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;,He=
lvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;color:rgb(38,40,42);border-left:1px=
solid rgb(204,204,204);padding-left:8px;margin:0px 0px 0px 8px"><div><div =
dir=3D"ltr">-- <br></div><div dir=3D"ltr">You received this message because=
you are subscribed to the Google Groups &quot;MassLep&quot; group.<br></di=
v><div dir=3D"ltr">To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails=
from it, send an email to <a rel=3D"nofollow">masslep+<u......>=
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<d5-47b1-4c0b-be44-f1d204a9bc70...>" target=3D"_blank">https://gro=
ups.google.com/d/msgid/masslep/51fde5d5-47b1-4c0b-be44-f1d204a9bc70%40comca=
st.net</a>.<br></div></div></div></div></div></div></blockquote></div></blo=
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